# Publications

1 | MAYET Clément, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, CHATTOT Eric, VERHILLE Jean-Noël "Electro-kinematical simulation for flexible energetic studies of railway systems" IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 65, N°. 4, p. 3592-3600, 4, Simulation is a valuable tool to evaluate energy consumptions and design of railway systems. The system limitations have an important influence on the system behavior and must be taken into account in the simulation. Especially, the electro-mechanical limitations have an impact on the kinematical behavior. However, such limitations are often neglected in classical studies. This paper deals with the development of an adaptive electro-kinematical simulation to adapt the kinematical behavior according to the system’s limitations. A flexible simulation tool is obtained by taking into account electrical, mechanical, and kinematical limitations. This tool is experimentally validated on a real railway track. It is then used to study solutions to increase the transport capacity of a subway system, even when limitations occur. |

2 | PIERQUIN Antoine, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Data-Driven Model Order Reduction for Magnetostatic Problem Coupled with Circuit Equations" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 54, N°. 3, 3 |

3 | MONTIER Laurent, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane, GOURSAUD Benjamin "Proper Generalized Decomposition Applied on a Rotating Electrical Machine" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 3 |

4 | HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Application of the Proper Generalized Decomposition to Solve MagnetoElectric Problem" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 3 |

5 | AYARI Mohamed, BELHAOUNE Moez, GUILLAUD Xavier, BENHADJ BRAIEK Naceur "Global Advanced Control Strategy for Modular Multilevel Converter integrated in a HVDC Link" International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems - Wiley, 2, Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is becoming a promising converter technology for high-voltage direct current transmission systems due to its high modularity, availability, and power quality. It is a multi-input-multi-output nonlinear system. The control system for MMC is required to simultaneously achieve multiple control objectives. Existing control strategies for MMC are complex and the controller parameter design is not straightforward for the nonlinear systems with highly coupled states. In view of this, a steady-state model for the MMC is developed on bilinear deviation state-space model around a working point. Based on linear quadratic regulator and least squares methods, a nonlinear polynomial feedback law is designed to simultaneously control the grid and differential currents, and the global stored energy and energy balancing between total upper and lower arms. To generate the optimal current references, a multivariable linear quadratic controller is used to regulate the total energy per leg, energy difference between each upper and lower arms, and the DC bus voltage. The proposed high-level controller depicts an original advanced control structure of MMC converter. The performance of the proposed strategy for a detailed model of 400-level MMC is evaluated using simulations in MATLAB/SIMULINK/SPS software environment. |

6 | AYARI Mohamed, BELHAOUNE Moez, BENHADJ BRAIEK Naceur, GUILLAUD Xavier "On the Stabilization and Stability Domain Estimation of VSC-HVDC Transmission Systems" IETE Journal of Research (Taylor & Francis), 2, Control of Voltage Source Converters (VSC) based HVDC transmission systems is developed in this paper. The proposed approach aims at stabilizing the power VSC, which is characterized by nonlinearities due to requirements of power flow and DC bus voltage. The steady state average model for the VSC-HVDC system is developed on linear and bilinear deviation state space model around the working point. Based on poles placement and Least Squares (LS) methods, linear and nonlinear polynomial feedback are considered. The proposed approach leads to regulate simultaneously the dq grid currents and the DC bus voltage. By upon the time domain simulations in MATLAB/SIMULINK/SPS environment, effectiveness of the proposed control strategies are tested on a VSC and a point-to-point VSC-HVDC transmission system. The simulation results show the robustness of the studied systems under various conditions. |

7 | DEVILLERS Emile, LE BESNERAIS Jean, LUBIN Thierry, HECQUET Michel, LECOINTE Jean-Philippe "An improved 2D subdomain model of squirrel cage induction machine including winding and slotting harmonics at steady state" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 54, N°. 2, 2 |

8 | FARZAM FAR Mehrnaz, MARTIN Floran, BELAHCEN Anouar, MONTIER Laurent, HENNERON Thomas "Orthogonal Interpolation Method for Order Reduction of a Synchronous Machine Model" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 54, N°. 2, p. 1-6, 2 |

9 | DEPATURE Clément, LHOMME Walter, SICARD Pierre, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BOULON Loïc "Real-time Backstepping control for fuel cell vehicle using supercapacitors" IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 67, N°. 1, p. 306-314, 1 |

10 | LI Kaibo, BOUSCAYROL Alain, HAN Shoulaing, CUI Shumei "Comparisons of Electrical Vehicles using Modular Cascade Machines System and Classical Single Drive Electrical Machine" IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 67, N°. 1, p. 354-361, 1 |

11 | DUTRIEUX Héloïse, COSSON Marjorie, BECT Julien, DELILLE Gauthier, FRANCOIS Bruno "A novel non-intrusive approximation method to obtain fast and accurate multi-period load-flows for distribution network planning" Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 154, p. 444-451, 1 |

1 | GRUSON François, KADRI Riad, COLAS Frédéric, GUILLAUD Xavier, DELARUE Philippe, BERGÉ Marta, DENNETIERE Sébastien, OULD BACHIR Tarek "Design, implementation and testing of a Modular Multilevel Converter" EPE Journal, Vol. 27, N°. 4, 12, The Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is a power electronic structure used for high voltage adjustable speed drives applications as well as power transmission applications and high-voltage direct current (HVDC). MMC structure presents many advantages such as modularity, the absence of a high voltage DC bus and very low switching frequency. It presents also some disadvantages such as modeling complexity and control due to the large number of semiconductors to control. The objectives of this paper are to present the methodology to design a laboratory MMC converter and its control system. This methodology is based on an intensive used of real-time simulation, to develop and test the control algorithm is proposed. This MMC prototype must be as realistic as possible to a full scale MMC, with a large number of SM (i.e. 640kV on the DC side, a rated power of 1GW and 400 sub-modules). A control hardware integrating distributed processors (one for each arm) and a master control is presented. The protocols to validate sub-modules, arms and the converter are explained. |

2 | GHENNA Sofiane, GIRAUD Frédéric, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, AMBERG Michel "Vector Control Of Piezoelectric Transducers and Ultrasonic Actuators" IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 12, This paper presents the implementation of a novel vibration amplitude control and resonant frequency tracking for Piezoelectric Transducers (PT) and Ultrasonic Motors (USM). It is based on a generalization of the Vector Control Method (VCM) to PT and USM that is explained in the first part. We show that two independent controllers with similar structure are required : one tracks the resonant frequency and the second controls the amplitude.We then present the implementation into a low cost DSP controller with a 200μsec sampling period. Experimental results on a Langevin Transducer achieved a time response of 20msec approximately, and the generality of the method is further demonstrated on a 2D Tactile stimulator at the end of the paper. |

3 | GILBERT Bergna, FREYTES Julian, GUILLAUD Xavier, SALVATORE D'Arco, JON ARE Suul "Generalized Voltage-based State-Space Modelling of Modular Multilevel Converters with Constant Equilibrium Point in Steady-State Operation" IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, 12 |

4 | NGOUA TEU MAGAMBO Jean Sylvio, BAKRI Reda, MARGUERON Xavier, LE MOIGNE Philippe, MAHE Arnaud, GUGUEN Stephane, BENSALAH Taoufik "Planar Magnetic Components in More Electric Aircraft: Review of Technology and Key Parameters for DC-DC Power Electronic Converter" IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, Vol. 3, N°. 4, p. 831-842, 12, url, The More Electric Aircraft (MEA) has motivated aircraft manufacturers since few decades. Indeed, their investigations lead to the increase of electric power in airplanes. The challenge is to decrease the weight of embedded systems and therefore the fuel consumption. This is possible thanks to new efficient power electronic converters made of new components. As magnetic components represent a great proportion of their weight, planar components are an interesting solution to increase the power density of some switching mode power supplies. This paper presents the benefits and drawbacks of high frequency planar transformers in DC/DC converter, different models developed for their design and different issues in MEA context related to planar’s specific geometry and technology. |

5 | MESBAHI Tedjani, RIZOUG Nassim, BARTHOLOMEUS Patrick, SADOUN Redha, KHENFRI Fouad, LE MOIGNE Philippe "Dynamic model of Li-Ion Batteries Incorporating Electrothermal and Ageing Aspects For Electric Vehicle Applications" IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 12, url, In this paper, a dynamic model of Li-ion batteries incorporating electrothermal and ageing aspects is proposed for electric vehicle applications. The main goal of the proposed model is to be both simple and sufficiently representative of the physical phenomena occurring in a battery cell. These two features allow for using this model as an evaluation tool of electric vehicle performances under different operational and environmental conditions. The developed model is based on an equivalent circuit diagram coupled with a thermal circuit and a semi-empirical ageing equation. Identification of parameters in the dynamic model is conducted by measurement tests in time-domain, which uses a hybrid Particle Swarm–Nelder–Mead optimization algorithm to achieve excellent prediction over the whole applicable current and state of charge ranges. The validation results show that the proposed model is able to simulate the dynamic interaction between the battery ageing and the thermal as well as electric behavior with sufficient accuracy in the range tested. |

6 | MESBAHI Tedjani, RIZOUG Nassim, BARTHOLOMEUS Patrick, SADOUN Redha, KHENFRI Fouad, LE MOIGNE Philippe "Optimal Energy Management For a Li-Ion Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Incorporating NelderMead Simplex Approach" IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles, 12, url, Combining a high power source like a supercapacitor with a Li-ion battery for electric vehicle applications results in good performance improvements, highly efficient, long lifetime, lightweight design and relatively modest cost of the overall source. A hybrid energy storage system controlled by a smart energy management strategy can play a key role in the design and development of multi-source electric vehicles. In this work, an optimal energy management strategy based on particle swarm optimization incorporating Nelder-Mead simplex method is proposed. The goal of the proposed strategy is to minimize the battery power stress and improves its lifetime. This is achieved by coupling a rule-based method based on the knowledge of the battery and supercapacitor efficiency operating with a hybrid Particle Swarm–Nelder–Mead (PSO–NM) optimization algorithm. This latter approach is proposed to optimize the control parameters of the rule-based energy management strategy, once the off-line optimization algorithm is over, the control method can be implemented on-line. The obtained results demonstrate significant lifetime enhancements for Li-Ion battery, an increase of up to 20% as compared to the mono-source based on regular single battery. |

7 | EL BECHARI Reda, BRISSET Stéphane, CLENET Stéphane, MIPO Jean-Claude "Enhanced Meta-model based Optimization under Constraints using Parallel Computations" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 12, Meta-models proved to be a very efficient strategy for optimization of expensive black-box models, e.g. Finite Element simulation for electromagnetic devices. It enables to reduce the computational burden for optimization purposes. Kriging is a popular method to build meta-model. Its statistical properties were firstly used in efficient global optimization for unconstrained problems. Afterwards many extensions were introduced in the literature to deal with constrained optimization. This paper presents a comparative study of some infill criteria for constraints handling and a new strategy for parallelization of the expensive computations of models. |

8 | DENG Siyang, EL BECHARI Reda, BRISSET Stéphane, CLENET Stéphane "Iterative Kriging-based Methods for Expensive Black-Box Models" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 12, Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO) in electromagnetic field problems requires the calculation of probability of failure leading to a huge computational cost in the case of expensive models. Three different RBDO approaches using kriging surrogate model are proposed to overcome this difficulty by introducing an approximation of the objective function and constraints. These methods use different infill sampling criteria (ISC) to add samples in the process of optimization or/and in the reliability analysis. Several enrichment criteria and strategies are compared in terms of number of evaluations and accuracy of the solution. |

9 | FREYTES Julian, GILBERT Bergna, JON ARE Suul, SALVATORE D'Arco, GRUSON François, COLAS Frédéric, SAAD Hani, GUILLAUD Xavier "Improving Small-Signal Stability of an MMC with CCSC by Control of the Internally Stored Energy" IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 11 |

10 | TAYLOR Laurent, MARGUERON Xavier, LE MENACH Yvonnick, LE MOIGNE Philippe "Numerical Modeling of PCB Planar Inductors: Impact of 3-D Modeling on High Frequency Copper Loss Evaluation" IET Power Electronics, Vol. 10, N°. 14, p. 1966-1974, 11, url, Loss values are key parameters for designing high performance high frequency (HF) magnetic components for power electronics (PE) converters. With the increase of PE switching frequencies, copper losses have to be precisely quantified, ideally until some megahertz. In the literature, many 2-D numerical simulations based on finite element analysis (FEA) are performed for such computations. 3-D FEA studies of planar components are still limited because of modeling problems, computational resources and computing time. In this paper, quantitative comparisons between 2-D and 3-D simulation results for planar inductors are achieved focusing on copper loss computation. Results are compared in terms of simulation performances and accuracy. The aim of the paper is to highlight benefits of 2-D and 3-D FEA simulations in order to choose the appropriate model according to the studied problem. |

11 | MARTÍN Cristina, BERMUDEZ GUZMAN Mario, BARRERO Federico, R. ARAHAL Manuel, KESTELYN Xavier, DURAN Mario "Sensitivity of predictive controllers to parameter variation in five-phase induction motor drives" Control Engineering Practice, Vol. 68, p. 23-31, 11, url, Model predictive control techniques have been recently proposed as a viable control alternative for power converters and electrical drives. The good current tracking, flexible control design or reduced switching losses are some of the benefits that explain the recently increased attention on finite-control-set model predictive control. The performance of the predictive model of the drive, which is the core of the predictive control, highly depends on the parameters of the real system. In this context, most research works assume good agreement between electrical parameters of the predictive model and the real machine, on the basis of nominal values. Nevertheless, this is far from being a real assumption, where non-modeled variables (i.e. the temperature, the magnetic saturation or the deep-bar effect) produce a detuning effect between the real system and its model, which can harm the control performance. The influence of parameter variations on the predictive control has barely been investigated in recent research works, where only conventional three-phase power converter configurations and permanent magnet drives have been taken into account. However, there is a lack of knowledge when different technologies like induction machines or multiphase drives are considered. It is worth highlighting the interest of the industry in induction motors as a mature technology or in multiphase drives as a promising alternative in applications where high overall system reliability and reduction in the total power per phase are required. This paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the impact of parameters mismatch on the finite-control-set predictive control performance of a five-phase induction motor drive, one of the multiphase electromechanical conversion systems with greatest impact in the research community. An exhaustive experimental sensitivity analysis of the close loop system performance based on more than three hundred trials in a test bench is presented. |

12 | AMAMRA Sid-Ali, MEGHRICHE Meghriche, CHERIFI Abderrezzak, FRANCOIS Bruno "Multilevel Inverter Topology for Renewable Energy Grid Integration" IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 64, N°. 11, 11 |

13 | ČERMÁK Martin, HECHT Frédéric, TANG Zuqi, VOHRALÍK Martin "Adaptive inexact iterative algorithms based on polynomial-degree-robust a posteriori estimates for the Stokes problem" Numerische Mathematik, ISBN DOI: 10.1007/s00211-017-0925-3, 11, url, In this paper, we develop adaptive inexact versions of iterative algorithms applied to finite element discretizations of the linear Stokes problem. We base our developments on an equilibrated stress a posteriori error estimate distinguishing the different error components, namely the discretization error component, the (inner) algebraic solver error component, and possibly the outer algebraic solver error component for algorithms of the Uzawa type. We prove that our estimate gives a guaranteed upper bound on the total error, as well as a polynomial-degree-robust local efficiency, and this on each step of the employed iterative algorithm. Our adaptive algorithms stop the iterations when the corresponding error components do not have a significant influence on the total error. The developed framework covers all standard conforming and conforming stabilized finite element methods on simplicial and rectangular parallelepipeds meshes in two or three space dimensions and an arbitrary algebraic solver. Implementation into the FreeFem++ programming language is invoked and numerical examples showcase the performance of our a posteriori estimates and of the proposed adaptive strategies. As example, we choose here the unpreconditioned and preconditioned Uzawa algorithm and the preconditioned minimum residual (MinRes) algorithm, in combination with the Taylor–Hood discretization. |

14 | ZHANG Jian, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, DELARUE Philippe, PIRIOU Francis, LEONTIDIS Vlasios, DAZIN Antoine, CAIGNAERT Guy, LIBAUX Antoine "Quantitative Design of a High Performance Permanent Magnet Vernier Generator" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 11, 11 |

15 | LHOMME Walter, BOUSCAYROL Alain, SYED Ali, ROY S, GAILLY F, PAPE Olivier "Energy Savings of a Hybrid Truck using a Ravigneaux Gear Train" IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 66, N°. 10, p. 8682 - 8692, 10 |

16 | BUI Kien, BRACIKOWSKI Nicolas, HECQUET Michel, ZAPPELLINI Kim-Lan, DUCREUX Jean-Pierre "Simulation of a large power Brushless Synchronous Generator (BLSG) with a rotating rectifier by a reluctance network for fault analysis and diagnosis" IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 53, N°. 5, 10, Abstract -- The aim of this paper is to simulate a large power brushless synchronous generator (BLSG) used for large turbo-alternator brushless excitation systems, under conditions of saturation and rotating rectifier diode failures. A reluctance network coupled with electric circuits and power electronic components integrating the movement and nonlinearities of materials has been developed. The approach achieves good compromise between accuracy and computing time for the complete analysis of a 39 phase machine with 117 teeth and 22 poles, and 78 diodes in the associated rectifier bridge. Our model is validated by comparison with experimental measurements and numerical simulation by a finite element package. For the simulations presented, a gain in computation time of 800 can be obtained compared with a finite element model. Different results are calculated for healthy and faulty states to study the impact of open diode block failure. Simulation results show that open diode failures have little effect on the rectified output voltage but the current through diodes and protection fuses increases. The currents in armature phase coil are very affected due to failures. A flux sensor coil can be placed on the stator pole to capture the impact of failures. The harmonic content of the pole flux can be used to monitor and detect diode failures. Index Terms-- Reluctance network, rotating rectifier, diodes, saturation, fault analysis, fault detection. |

17 | HASAN Rokibul, MONTIER Laurent, HENNERON Thomas, SABARIEGO Ruth "POD-based reduced-order model of an eddy-current levitation problem" Scientific Computing in Electrical Engineering SCEE 2016, Mathematics in Industry, 10 |

18 | MONTIER Laurent, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane, GOURSAUD Benjamin "Robust Model Order Reduction of an Electrical Machine at Startup through Reduction Error Estimation" International Journal of Numerical Modelling, 9 |

19 | DEPATURE Clément, LHOMME Walter, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BOULON Loïc, SICARD Pierre, JOKELA Tommi "Characterization of the Electric Drive of EV: On-road versus Off-road Method" IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, Vol. 7, N°. 3, p. 215-222, 8 |

20 | TIAN Tian, KESTELYN Xavier, OLIVIER Thomas, AMANO Hiroyuki, MESSINA A.R "An Accurate Third-order Normal Form Approximation for Power System Nonlinear Analysis" IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, N°. no.99, ISBN doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2017.2737462, 8, url |

21 | TITTARELLI Roberta, LE MENACH Yvonnick, PIRIOU Francis, CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, DUCREUX Jean-Pierre "Comparison of Numerical Error Estimators for Eddy Current Problems solved by FEM" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 8, In the domain of field computation with the finite element method, choosing the mesh refinement is an important step to obtain an accurate solution. In order to evaluate the quality of the mesh, a posteriori error estimators are frequently used. In this communication we propose to analyze and to compare residual and equilibrated error estimators for eddy current problems in the case of A-φ and TΩ formulations. The different properties of the estimators will be discussed. |

22 | MAYET Clément, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHATTOT Eric "Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation of Traction Power Supply for Power Flows Analysis of Multi-Train Subway Lines" IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 66, N°. 7, p. 5564-5571, 7, Multi-train systems are complex to study due to the size of the system and its specificities. To tackle these difficulties, this paper develops a reduced-scale power Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation dedicated to subway lines emulations. Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is used to organize the HIL simulation. A first mono-train HIL simulation is developed and validated by experimental results. The HIL simulation is then extended to a two-train study to analyze the different power flows between subsystems. |

23 | FARZAM FAR Mehrnaz, BELAHCEN Anouar, RASILO Paavo, CLENET Stéphane, PIERQUIN Antoine "Model order reduction of electrical machines with multiple inputs" IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 53, N°. 4, p. 3355-3360, 7 |

24 | HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter, DEPATURE Clément "Impact of heating system on the range of an electric vehicle" IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 66, N°. 3, p. 4668 - 4677, 6, For an accurate evaluation of the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV), many conditions must be considered (road profile, traffic influence, etc.). However cabin heating system is not often considered despite its significant impact. In this paper, the impact of the cabin heating system is studied on the driving range of an EV. A real EV is used as a reference. A multi-domain model is developed and validated by experimental results on the vehicle. From this validated model, the impact of the heating system on the range is evaluated up to 30% in cold climatic conditions. In a classical approach, an eco-driving mode enables an increase in the range by reducing the vehicle acceleration and velocity. When considering the heating system, the energy balance is more complex: the eco-driving mode can lead to an over-consumption of energy. A better compromise is required as a function of the climatic condition |

25 | FRATILA Mircea, BENABOU Abdelkader, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, DESSOUDE Maxime "Iron Loss Calculation in a Synchronous Generator Using Finite Element Analysis" IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 32, N°. 2, p. 640 - 648, 6, url, This paper deals with the calculation of iron losses in a turgenerator using a magnetodynamic Finite Element (F.E.) Analysis accounting for the eddy currents in the damper bars. Two iron loss models, based on the Berttoti’s decomposition approach, are compared in the post-processing step of a F.E. calculation. The numerical model of the studied system is validated by comparing the calculation and the experiment for no-load conditions. |

26 | SATHYAN Sabin, BELAHCEN Anouar, JUHANI Kataya, HENROTTE François, BENABOU Abdelkader, LE MENACH Yvonnick "Computation of Magnetic Forces Using Degenerated Airgap Element" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, p. 7401304, 6, url, This paper presents an efficient method to calculate the magnetic forces on bodies in contact. The forces are computed through the local application of the virtual work principle on degenerated air-gap elements. The results from this method are compared with those from other software and validated with measurements on a permanent magnet setup. Not only is this technique very accurate, but it also reduces the computational burden related to the problematic meshing of thin layers. The implementation of this method in an open source finite element software having facilities for higher order elements and parallel computation unlocks a cost effective and effectual platform for an electromechanical computation of electromechanical devices and magnetic materials. |

27 | CHEAYTANI Jalal, BENABOU Abdelkader, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, DESSOUDE Maxime "Stray load losses analysis of cage induction motor using 3-D finite element method with external circuit coupling" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, p. 8202104, 6, url, The stray load losses in electrical machines represent a non-negligible contribution of the total losses and are a key point for an accurate evaluation of the energy efficiency of the considered device. In this paper, a methodology using the 3-D finite-element (FE) modeling approach and a posteriori loss calculation is presented for the estimation of the stray load losses. The case of a cage induction motor is investigated, and results are compared with the experiment. The simulation is performed at different load conditions using a 3-D FE model with external circuit coupling. |

28 | MONTIER Laurent, CLENET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas, GOURSAUD Benjamin "Rotation movement based on the Spatial Fourier Interpolation Method (SFIM)" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, 6, In the field of computational electromagnetics, taking into account the rotation of a sub-domain is required to simulate certain devices such as electrical machines. Several methods have been proposed in the literature, but they remain quite difficult to implement. In this paper, we propose a sliding surface method based on a spatial Fourier interpolation in order to take into account any rotation angle with a very simple numerical implementation. |

29 | MONTIER Laurent, PIERQUIN Antoine, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Structure Preserving Model Reduction of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Problem based on POD and DEIM" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, 6, The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) combined with the (Discrete) Empirical Interpolation Method (DEIM) can be used to reduce the computation time of the solution of a FE model. However, it can lead to numerical instabilities. To increase the robustness, the POD_DEIM model must be constructed by preserving the structure of the full FE model. In this article, the structure preserving is applied for different potential formulations used to solve electromagnetic problems. |

30 | HENNERON Thomas, MONTIER Laurent, PIERQUIN Antoine, CLENET Stéphane "Comparison of DEIM and BPIM to Speed up a POD-based Nonlinear Magnetostatic Model" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, 6, Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) has been successfully used to reduce the size of the equation system and the computation time of linear Finite Element (FE) problems. With a nonlinear behavior law, the POD is not so efficient due to the computation cost of nonlinear entries of the full FE model. Then, the POD approach must be combined with an interpolation method of nonlinear terms to obtain an efficient reduced model. An interpolation method consists on the computation of a small number of nonlinear entries and on the interpolation of other terms. Different methods have been presented to select the set of nonlinear entries to be calculated. Then, the (Discrete) Empirical Interpolation method ((D)EIM) and the Best Points Interpolation Method (BPIM) have been developed. In this article, we propose to compare two reduced models based on the POD-(D)EIM and on the POD-BPIM in the case of nonlinear magnetostatics coupled with electric equation. |

31 | YAN Xingyu, ABBES Dhaker, FRANCOIS Bruno "Uncertainty analysis for day ahead power reserve quantification in an urban microgrid including PV generators" Renewable Energy, Vol. 106, p. 288–297, 6, url, Setting an adequate operating power reserve (PR) to compensate unpredictable imbalances between generation and consumption is essential for power system security. Operating power reserve should be carefully sized but also ideally minimized and dispatched to reduce operation costs with a satisfying security level. Although several energy generation and load forecasting tools have been developed, decision-making methods are required to estimate the operating power reserve amount within its dispatch over generators during small time windows and with adaptive capabilities to markets, as new ancillary service markets. This paper proposes an uncertainty analysis method for power reserve quantification in an urban microgrid with a high penetration ratio of PV (photovoltaic) power. First, forecasting errors of PV production and load demand are estimated one day ahead by using artificial neural networks. Then two methods are proposed to calculate one day ahead the net demand error. The first perform a direct forecast of the error, the second one calculates it from the available PV power and load demand forecast errors. This remaining net error is analyzed with dedicated statistical and stochastic procedures. Hence, according to an accepted risk level, a method is proposed to calculate the required PR for each hour. |

32 | TRABELSI Mohamed, SEMAIL Eric, NGUYEN Ngac Ky "Experimental Investigation of Inverter Open-Circuit Fault Diagnosis for Bi-Harmonic Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Drive" IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, Vol. PP, N°. 99, ISBN DOI: 10.1109/JESTPE.2017.2719634, 6, url, This paper proposes a procedure that is suitable for experimental investigation of real-time open-switch and open-phase faults diagnosis of a five-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) feeding a five-phase bi-harmonic Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (5-Φ B-PMSM). The algorithm is based on the specific characteristics of multiphase machines, which allows inverter fault detection with sufficient robustness of the algorithm in the presence of fundamental and third harmonic components. Firstly, the inverter fault effects analysis is achieved in the characteristic subspaces of the five-phase PMSM. Specificities that are interesting for the elaboration of a real-time Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) process are highlighted. Original and particular algorithms are used for an accurate two-dimensional normalized fault vector extraction in a defined fault reference frame. This frame is dedicated only for fault detection and identification. To ensure the high immunity of the FDI process against transient states, a particular normalization procedure is applied. The normalized diagnostic signals are formulated from the defined frame and others variables derived from the reference and measured currents. Simulation and experimental results of open-switch and open-phase faults are provided to validate the proposed algorithm. |

33 | SEDNAOUI Thomas, VEZZOLI Eric, DZIDEK Brygida, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, CHAPPAZ Cedrick, ADAMS Michael "Friction Reduction through Ultrasonic Vibration Part 2: Experimental Evaluation of Intermittent Contact and Squeeze Film Levitation" IEEE Transactions on Haptics, Vol. 10, N°. 2, p. 208-216, ISBN 1939-1412, 6, url, In part 1 of the current study of haptic displays, a finite element (FE) model of a finger exploring a plate vibrating out-of-plane at ultrasonic frequencies was developed as well as a spring-frictional slider model. It was concluded that the reduction in friction induced by the vibrations could be ascribed to ratchet mechanism as a result of intermittent contact. The relative reduction in friction calculated using the FE model could be superimposed onto an exponential function of a dimensionless group defined from relevant parameters. The current paper presents measurements of the reduction in friction, involving real and artificial fingertips, as a function of the vibrational amplitude and frequency, the applied normal force and the exploration velocity. The results are reasonably similar to the calculated FE values and also could be superimposed using the exponential function provided that the intermittent contact was sufficiently well developed, which for the frequencies examined correspond to a minimum vibrational amplitude of - 1 μm P-P. It was observed that the reduction in friction depends on the exploration velocity and is independent of the applied normal force and ambient air pressure, which is not consistent with the squeeze film mechanism. However, the modelling did not incorporate the influence of air and the effect of ambient pressure was measured under a limited range of conditions, Thus squeeze film levitation may be synergistic with the mechanical interaction. |

34 | VEZZOLI Eric, VIDRIH Zlatko, GIAMUNDO Vincenzo, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, GIRAUD Frédéric, RODIC Tomaz, PERIC Djordje, ADAMS Michael "Friction Reduction through Ultrasonic Vibration Part 1: Modelling Intermittent Contact" IEEE Transactions on Haptics, Vol. 10, N°. 2, p. 196-207, ISBN 1939-1412, 6, url, Ultrasonic vibration is employed to modify the friction of a finger pad in way that induces haptic sensations. A combination of intermittent contact and squeeze film levitation has been previously proposed as the most probable mechanism. In this paper, in order to understand the underlying principles that govern friction modulation by intermittent contact, numerical models based on finite element (FE) analysis and also a spring-Coulombic slider are developed. The physical input parameters for the FE model are optimized by measuring the contact phase shift between a finger pad and a vibrating plate. The spring-slider model assists in the interpretation of the FE model and leads to the identification of a dimensionless group that allows the calculated coefficient of friction to be approximately superimposed onto an exponential function of the dimensionless group. Thus, it is possible to rationalize the computed relative reduction in friction being (i) dependent on the vibrational amplitude, frequency, and the intrinsic coefficient of friction of the device, and the reciprocal of the exploration velocity, and (ii) independent of the applied normal force, and the shear and extensional elastic moduli of the finger skin provided that intermittent contact is sufficiently well developed. Experimental validation of the modelling using real and artificial fingertips will be reported in part 2 of this work, which supports the current modelling. |

35 | BERMUDEZ GUZMAN Mario, GONZALEZ-PRIETO Ignacio, BARRERO Federico, GUZMAN Hugo, KESTELYN Xavier, DURAN Mario "An Experimental Assessment of Open-Phase Fault-Tolerant Virtual Vector Based Direct Torque Control in Five-Phase Induction Motor Drives" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 33, N°. 3, p. 2774-2784, 6, url, Direct torque control (DTC) has been recently used for the development of high performance five-phase induction motor (IM) drives, where normal operation of the system has been usually considered and the ability of DTC to manage the situation has been analyzed in comparison with different rotor field-oriented control (RFOC) strategies. The exploitation of fault-tolerant capabilities is also an interesting issue in multiphase machines, where the utility of RFOC controllers has been stated when the open-phase fault operation is considered. In this paper, the performance of DTC and RFOC controllers based on proportional resonant regulators and predictive control techniques is compared when an open-phase fault appears in a five-phase IM drive. Experimental tests are provided to compare the performance of the system using these control alternatives. |

36 | LEFORT Romain, VAUZELLE Rodolphe, COURTECUISSE Vincent, IDIR Nadir, POUSSARD Anne-Marie "Influence of the MV/LV transformer impedance on the propagation of the PLC signal in the power grid" IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 31, N°. 3, p. 1339 - 1349, ISBN 0885-8977, 6, Improving the operation of power grid and offering new smart applications, the deployment of a supervisory infrastructure is necessary. One solution to transmit data may be based on the Power Line Communication (PLC) technology. It consists in the superposition of the high frequency signals with the electrical signal 50/60 Hz. However, the power grids have not been designed to operate in high frequencies. Therefore, they provide a transmission channel with difficult propagation conditions. This paper deals with the modeling of the MV/LV power transformers in PLC frequencies. The proposed models are based on “lumped model” and “black box model”. They are performed in frequency band from 1 kHz to 1 MHz on SPICE and MATLAB softwares respectively. These models are based on impedance measurements and validated by experimental data. The advantages and drawbacks of each model are detailed from the presentation of modeling method and simulation results. The comparison of the simulation results show that “black box model” offers a good accuracy. The transmission results show that transformers are an important element in PLC studies because it provides significant losses. Moreover, these losses depend mainly on the values of the impedance terminals of MV/LV transformer. |

37 | PUIGDELLIVOL Oriol, MÉRESSE Damien, LE MENACH Yvonnick, HARMAND Souad, WECXSTEEN Jean-François "Thermal Topology Optimization of a Three-Layer Laminated Busbar for Power Converters" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 32, N°. 6, p. 4691-4699, 6, This paper focuses on a topology optimization method for laminated busbars in power converters that minimizes the quantity of copper used while keeping the temperature under the allowed limits. Busbars are widely studied for adding their stray inductance to the commutation loop, which causes surge voltage across the power devices. However, the study of heat dissipation is essential to control hotspots in the busbar and preserve the converter components. Current density and temperature are sensitive to shape modifications; hence, topology optimization based on multiphysics simulations is an aspect to be considered when designing prototypes for a good cost performance ratio. The temperature is calculated by an electrothermal two-dimensional (2-D) finite element method (FEM) superposition approach. Busbar plates are modeled in 2-D since the thickness is constant. Furthermore, the different layers are related by the thermal equations reproducing the heat transfers regarding the overlap in the laminated busbar. Simulation results are validated by experimental tests. Comparison with 3-D FEM proves the 2-D approach to be faster while remaining accurate and a perfect method for topology optimization resolutions, which are very time consuming for three-dimensional (3-D) geometries. The busbar topology optimization is made by maximizing the energy transfer with the environment and by varying the electric and thermal conductivities of the mesh elements. Optimization leads to more than 50% volume reduction. |

38 | MONTIER Laurent, HENNERON Thomas, GOURSAUD Benjamin, CLENET Stéphane "Balanced Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Applied to Magnetoquasistatic Problems Through a Stabilization Methodology" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 4 |

39 | VIDET Arnaud, MESSAOUDI Medhi, IDIR Nadir, BOULHARTS Hocine, VANG Heu "PWM Strategy for the Cancellation of Common-Mode Voltage Generated by Three-Phase Back-to-Back Inverters" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 32, N°. 4, p. 2675-2686, 4, url, This paper presents a PWM strategy for the cancellation of common-mode (CM) voltage generated by three-phase back-to-back two-level inverters. This method theoretically provides complete elimination of the CM voltage by synchronizing all the commutations of one converter with commutations of the other one, so that the overall resulting CM voltage does not vary. The degrees of freedom of this strategy are studied and an experimental implementation is carried out on a 15kW motor drive prototype to validate the method effectiveness. Taking into account dead-time compensation, measurements in time and frequency domains show that the CM voltage is strongly reduced and that more than 15dB reduction is achieved in a wide frequency range. |

40 | ARBENZ Laure, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane, MIPO Jean-Claude, FAVEROLLE Pierre "Characterization of the Local Incremental Permeability of a Ferromagnetic Plate Based on a Four Needles Technique" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 3, 3, url, The performances of electrical machines depend highly on the behavior of ferromagnetic materials. In some applications, these materials operate under DC polarization, i.e. when the magnetic field oscillates around a DC bias. In that condition, it is required to know the incremental permeability which characterizes the magnetic behavior of the material around the operating point. In this paper, a non-destructive approach, involving a combination of experiment and Finite Element (FE) technique, is presented in order to determine the incremental permeability. The proposed sensor is based on the four-needles method. With this sensor, Bowler et al. have proposed a method to determine the initial permeability of homogeneous metal plates based on an analytical model. Here we propose to use the same kind of sensor to determine the incremental permeability. The measurement process is analyzed using a FE model. It is shown that the analytical approach reaches its limits if the permeability of the plate and its thickness become too high. A combination between the measurements and a FE model is introduced to overcome this difficulty to determine the incremental permeability. The study of two magnetic steel samples illustrates the interest of this method. |

41 | CARON Guillaume, HENNERON Thomas, PIRIOU Francis, MIPO Jean-Claude "Waveform relaxation-Newton method to determine steady state: application to three-phase transformer" The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 36, N°. 3, p. 729-740, 3, To determine the steady state of an electromagnetic structure with the finite element method without calculation of the transient state. The proposed method permits to reduce the computation time if the transient state is important. In the case of coupling magnetic and electric circuit equations to obtain the steady state with periodic conditions, an approach can be to discretise the time with periodic conditions and to solve the equation system. Unfortunately, the computation time can be prohibitive. In this paper, the authors proposed to use the waveform relaxation method associated to Newton method to accelerate the convergence. The obtained results show that the proposed approach is efficient if the transient state is important. On the contrary, if the transient is very low it is preferable to use the classical approach namely the time stepping finite element method. The main limitation of the proposed approach is the necessity to evaluate or to know the time constant and consequently the duration of the transient state. Moreover the method requires some important memory resources. In the context of the use of the time stepping finite element method, one of the problems is the computation time which can be important to obtain the steady state. The proposed method permits avoidance of this difficulty and gives directly the steady state. The novelty is the proposal of the waveform relaxation Newton method to obtain directly the steady state in the case of the study of the three phases transformer |

42 | BELHAOUNE Moez, GUILLAUD Xavier "On the Backstepping Approach for VSC-HVDC and VSC-MTDC Transmission Systems" Electric Power Components and Systems - Taylor & Francis, Vol. 45, N°. 5, p. 520-533, ISBN 1532-5008, 3, url, This article presents a backstepping control design strategy for the voltage source converter (VSC)-based high-voltage direct current (HVDC). First, a dynamic model is derived based on the state space description. Subject to the backstepping control design proce- dure strategy, a non-linear control scheme is developed in the sense of Lyapunov stability theory in order to satisfy various objectives of a stable HVDC system and guarantee a grid connection with a unity power factor. Then, the proposed control method is extended for multi-terminal (MT) HVDC transmission systems based on VSCs. In order to improve the dynamic behavior of the controlled DC bus volt- age and the stability of MTDC systems, a backstepping control strat- egy accorded to each VSC is proposed and integrated into the voltage droop control strategy. The designed advanced controller allows to improve the overall DC grid stability and to reach the droop values, designed on static considerations, with satisfying dynamic behavior. Compared to the conventional control, the use of a backstepping con- trol allows to exhibit excellent transient response over a wide range of operating conditions. |

43 | BERMUDEZ GUZMAN Mario, GONZALEZ-PRIETO Ignacio, BARRERO Federico, GUZMAN Hugo, DURAN Mario, KESTELYN Xavier "Open-Phase Fault-Tolerant Direct Torque Control Technique for Five-Phase Induction Motor Drives" IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 64, N°. 2, p. 902-911, 2, url, Direct torque control (DTC) has been widely used as an alternative to traditional field-oriented control (FOC) methods for three-phase drives. The conventional DTC scheme has been successfully extended to multiphase drives in recent times, using hysteresis regulators to independently track the desired torque and flux in symmetrical five-phase induction machines (IM). The fault-tolerant capability of multiphase drives is an interesting intrinsic advantage for safety-critical applications, where recent research has demonstrated the effectiveness of FOC schemes to perform ripple-free post-fault operation. In spite of the utility of DTC methods in normal operation of the multiphase machine, no extension to manage the post-fault operation of the drive is found in the literature. In this paper, a novel fault-tolerant DTC scheme is presented. The performance of the proposed method is experimentally validated in a five-phase IM drive considering an open-phase fault condition. Provided tests analyze steady and transient states, including the transition from pre- to post-fault operation. Obtained results prove the interest of the proposal, which ensures the open-phase fault-tolerant capability of DTC controlled five-phase IM drives. |

44 | DOS SANTOS MORAES Tiago José, NGUYEN Ngac Ky, SEMAIL Eric, MEINGUET Fabien, GUERIN Maël "Dual-Multiphase Motor Drives for Fault-Tolerant Applications: Power Electronic Structures and Control Strategies" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 33, N°. 1, p. 572-580, 2, url, This paper analyzes two fault-tolerant dual-multiphase motor drives, a series connected topology and a standard H-bridge topology. Previous studies have shown that the series connected topology is appropriate to an aerospace application and has lower peak current in degraded mode in comparison with the H-bridge topology, which may consequently diminish the system’s weight and cost. This paper extends the study to compare different control strategies of these structures under two fault conditions: short-circuit of an inverter’s switch and an open-phase of the machine. The control strategies analyzed in this paper do not impact the fundamental current or the torque generation, but the amplitudes of some harmonics in degraded mode are expected to be narrowed down in order to reduce the inverter’s size. Some analyses of maximum voltage and peak current in degraded mode have been used for inverter dimensioning. Experimental results are shown and compared to the simulated ones to confirm the validity of this study. |

45 | LIU Mingyong, TANG Zuqi, MININGER Xavier, BOUILLAULT Frédéric, HUBERT Olivier, BERNARD Laurent "Modeling of Magnetic-Induced Deformation Using Computer Code Chaining and Source-Tensor Projection" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, p. 1-4, 2, url, Source tensor projections are developed for the magneto-elastic coupled problems when magnetostriction-induced force and magnetic force are considered. Comparisons with classical force density projection are first performed on a simple example. Then, it is investigated on an application of a multilayer transformer core with the consideration of material anisotropy and multilayer inhomogeneity. |

46 | LESEL Jonathan, BOURDON D, CLAISSE Gauthier, DEBAY P, ROBYNS Benoît "Real time electrical power estimation for the energy management of automatic metro lines" Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 131, p. 3-20, 1, This paper intends to present a methodology to maximise reuse of regenerative braking energy in automatic metro lines for both offline and real time energy management. It first describes optimisation techniques for scheduling energy efficient timetables, while considering a no-fluctuation operating mode, as it corresponds to the most dominant operating case. Impact of headway and dwell time management on regenerative braking recovery are especially examined with a multi-criteria fitness function. Then, iterative solving techniques are introduced to precisely quantify energy transfers between trains. A neural estimator of trains power consumption is also proposed to meet real time requirements. Simulation results based on experiments conducted on Torino metro line are exposed to evaluate the performance of this estimator. |

47 | BOUALLAGA Anouar, DAVIGNY Arnaud, COURTECUISSE Vincent, ROBYNS Benoît "Methodology for technical and economic assessment of electric vehicles integration in distribution grid" Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 131, p. 172-189, 1, This paper proposes a methodology to design a supervision system (SS) based on Fuzzy and Boolean logics. In the first stage, a graphical modeling tool is used to facilitate the analysis and the determination of Fuzzy–Boolean algorithm linked to the test system. To improve the performance of the proposed SS a genetic algorithm (GA) is implemented in the second stage. The SS objective is used to control electric vehicles (EVs) load in order to minimize the energy transmission costs (ETC) of the distribution system operator (DSO). To achieve this goal, it is necessary to promote local consumption of wind and photovoltaic (PV) power by coordinating them with EVs load, maximize EVs charging during cheaper energy periods and reduce subscribed power exceeding. The performance of the SS is shown by numerical simulation results using Matlab/Simulink. Finally, a Matlab–PowerFactory co-simulation framework is proposed in order to assess supervision system influence on the technical aspects of a real test grid. |

48 | RIZOUG Nassim, SADOUN Rehda, MESBAHI Tedjani, BARTHOLOMEUS Patrick, LE MOIGNE Philippe "Aging of High power Li-ion cells during real use of electric vehicles" IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, 1, Currently, the vehicle manufacturers use the high power Li-ion technology to supply the electric and hybrid vehicles. This technology is able to ensure the power needed to propel the vehicle. Until now several studies have been made by the laboratories and manufacturers to characterize this technology. The aim of these test (electric, thermal, aging,…) is to make comparison between Li-ion technologies and choice the best one for each application. For that, they use accelerated cycling with different condition to characterize cells, what can reduce the tests duration. Unfortunately, this type of cycle can’t give us information about the aging of HP Li-ion technology under real use of the vehicle. Firstly, the requirements specification (vehicle specification, battery technologies, mission) has been presented. After that, we will present the test bench developed in our laboratory to characterize batteries and study the aging of the HP technology. In this paper we present the study of the Li-ion HP behavior during almost 3 years and the modelling (electric, thermal and aging modelling) using a real driving cycle. The experimental results are compared to the results obtained with the developed ageing model. The obtained results prove the good performances of this technology in electric vehicle applications. |

49 | SHINODA Kosei, GUILLAUD Xavier, BACHA Seddik, BENCHAIB Abdelkrim, FRANCOIS Bruno "Modelling of a VSC-based multi-terminal HVDC network for dynamic stability analysis" The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 36, N°. 1, p. 240 - 257, 1, Purpose Self-commuted voltage source converter (VSC) can significantly extend the flexibility and operability of an HVDC system and be used to implement the concept of multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) grid. To take full advantage of MTDC systems, its overall behaviour must be characterized in quasi static and dynamic states. Based on the numerous literatures, a dedicated two-level VSC model and its local controllers and DC grid voltage regulators are developed for this purpose. Furthermore, the requirement of the system to guarantee all the physical constrains must be well assessed and concrete demonstrations must be provided by numerical simulations. Design/methodology/approach First, a two-level VSC model and its local controllers and DC grid voltage regulators are developed. Then, DC cable models are investigated and their characteristics are assessed in the frequency domain. Those developed models are combined to form a three-terminal HVDC grid system on Matlab/Simulink platform. To analyze the stability of this electrical system, the dynamics of the system against variations of power dispatch are observed. Findings To analyze the stability of this electrical system, the dynamics of the system against variations of power dispatch are observed. The differences in the DC grid voltage dynamics and the power flow of the converter stations coming from the embedded primary controls are analysed, and the technical requirements for both cases are assessed. Originality/value In this paper, the dynamic stability of an MTDC system has been analysed and assessed through an adequate simulation model, including its control scheme and the cable models. The interest of the improved PI model for cables is highlighted. |

50 | HOANG Trung-Kien, VIDO Lionel, GABSI Mohamed, GILLON Frédéric "Flux control range broadening and torque ripple minimization of a double excitation synchronous motor" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 1, p. 1-10, 1, This paper presents performance improvements of a double excitation synchronous motor by using a reluctance network (RN). The distinguishing feature of the double excitation principle is to use permanent magnets with high energy, while air-gap flux is flexibly controlled by field windings. Therefore, the first contribution of this paper focuses on maximizing air-gap flux range control. Second, an approach for torque ripple reduction is proposed by directly modifying air-gap flux according to the instantaneous torque profile. The achieved resultant torque stays almost constant for a case study. The validity of the RN method is examined by comparisons with 3-D finite element and experimental results for several machines. |

1 | BUZILA-PANKOVITS Petronela, ABBES Dhaker, SAUDEMONT Christophe, BRISSET Stéphane, POUGET Julien, ROBYNS Benoît "Multi-criteria fuzzy-logic optimized supervision for hybrid railway power substations" Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 130, p. 236-250, 12, Renewable energy sources and storage units’ integration in the railway power substations is an alternative solution to handle the energy consumption, due to railway traffic increase and electricity market liberalization. To integrate this technology change in the railway network, an adapted energy management system has to be established. However, when considering only energy efficiency aspects on the energy management strategy, an economical viable solution cannot be ensured. This paper proposes a supervision strategy based on multi-criteria approach including energetic, environmental and economic constraints. The energy management objectives such as reducing the network power demand, favoring local renewable consumption and ensuring storage availability are treated in different time levels. Economic aspects are first integrated in predictive mode based on forecast data. Then a supervision strategy is developed based on fuzzy logic approach and graphical tool to build it. An optimization study of the supervision strategy is proposed in order to conclude on system performance. Simulation results are discussed for different scenarios cases and the reaction of the hybrid railway power substation is detailed. Results show that this methodology can be successfully applied for hybrid systems energy management in order to improve their energy efficiency. |

2 | HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHENG Yuan, DUMAND Clément, COLIN Guillaume, CHAMAILLARD Yann "Influence of the heating system on the fuel consumption of a hybrid electric vehicle" Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 129, p. 250–261, 12, This research work aims to study the impact of the heating system on the fuel consumption of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The thermal engine is less used in an HEV than in a thermal vehicle, thus the cabin heating is partly ensured by electrical resistances. However, because the battery is partly charged by the thermal engine, this electrical heating has an impact on the fuel consumption. In the present work, a multi-domain model is proposed to analyze the impact of the heating system on the fuel consumption of a HEV. The models of the different physical subsystems are organized and unified by energetic macroscopic representation (EMR). Experimental validations, with an accuracy of 95%, are provided for each subsystem model. The validated simulation models are used to study the impact of the heating system for a specific driving cycle and climatic condition. For a simple energy management strategy (EMS), there is an over-consumption of 19% that is due to the heating system. When a more efficient EMS is used, the over-consumption is reduced to 12%. This study shows the interest in developing advanced energy management strategies that couple the traction and the heating functions of the vehicle. |

3 | MESBAHI Tedjani, RIZOUG Nassim, KHENFRI Fouad, BARTHOLOMEUS Patrick, LE MOIGNE Philippe "Dynamical Modeling and Emulation of Li-Ion Batteries/Supercapacitors Hybrid Power Supply for Electric Vehicle Applications" IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, 12, Modeling dynamic behaviors of the Li-ion battery and supercapacitor in electric vehicle applications is a key aspect for the emulation of the hybrid power supply. In this paper, a dynamical model based on two nonlinear equivalent circuits is developed to describe the characteristics of the battery and supercapacitor during both steady-state and transient conditions. The necessary parameters for proposed model are extracted from measurement data in time and frequency-domain using an optimization algorithm. The developed model is coupled to power electronics devices fed by DC power supply to carry out a laboratory emulator of the hybrid power supply. This tool is mainly used for testing and verification of the electric vehicle performances with convenient and reproducible way. The proposed emulator avoids time-consuming preconditioning and safety problems generally caused by the misuse of electrochemical components such as the Li-ion battery. The modeling and experimental results show a good performance of the hybrid power supply emulator and confirm their feasibility over a wide range of operating points. |

4 | GOMOZOV Oleg, TROVAO Joao, KESTELYN Xavier, DUBOIS Maxime "Adaptive Energy Management System Based on a Real-Time Model Predictive Control With Nonuniform Sampling Time for Multiple Energy Storage Electric Vehicle" IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 12, The performance of a dual energy storage electric vehicle system mainly depends on the quality of its power and energy managements. A real-time management strategy supported by a Model Predictive Control using the non-uniform sampling time concept is developed and fully addressed in this paper. First, the overall multiple energy storage powertrain model including its inner control layer is represented with the Energetic Macroscopic Representation and used to introduce the energy strategy level. The model of the system with its inner control layer is translated into the state space domain in order to develop a Model Predictive Control approach. The management algorithm based on mixed short- and long-term predictions is compared to rule-based and constant sampling time Model Predictive Control strategies in order to assess its performance and its ability to be used in a real vehicle. The real-time simulation results indicate that, compared to other strategies, the proposed Model Predictive Control strategy can balance the power and the energy of the dual energy storage system more effectively, and reduce the stress on batteries. Moreover, battery and supercapacitor key variables are kept within safety limits, increasing the lifetime of the overall system. |

5 | AISSOU Riad, REKIOUA Toufik, REKIOUA Djamila, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm "Robust nonlinear predictive control of permanent magnet synchronous generator turbine using Dspace hardware" International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 41, N°. 45, p. 21047-21056, 12 |

6 | AISSOU Riad, REKIOUA Toufik, REKIOUA Djamila, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm "Application of nonlinear predictive control for charging the battery using wind energy with permanent magnet synchronous generator" International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 41, N°. 45, p. 20964-20973, 12 |

7 | ZAHR Hussein, GONG Jinlin, SEMAIL Eric, SCUILLER Franck "Comparison of optmized Control Strategies of a Bi-harmonic five-phase Electrical Machine for Traction high speed range" Energies, Vol. 9, N°. 12, p. 952, 11, url, The purpose of the paper is to present the potentialities in terms of the control of a new kind of PM synchronous machine. With five phases and electromotive forces whose first ( ) and third ( ) harmonics are of similar amplitude, the studied machine, so-called bi-harmonic, has properties that are interesting for traction machine payload. With three-phase machines, supplied by a mono-harmonic sinusoidal current, the weak number of freedom degrees limits the strategy of control for traction machines especially when voltage saturation occurs at high speeds. As the torque is managed for three-phase machines by a current with only one harmonic, flux weakening is necessary to increase speed when the voltage limitation is reached. The studied five-phase machine, thanks to the increase in the number of freedom degrees for control, aims to alleviate this fact. In this paper, three optimized control strategies are compared in terms of efficiency and associated torque/speed characteristics. These strategies take into account numerous constraints either from the supply (with limited voltage) or from the machine (with limited current densities and maximum acceptable copper, iron and permanent magnet losses). The obtained results prove the wide potentialities of such a kind of five-phase bi-harmonic machine in terms of control under constraints. It is thus shown that the classical Maximum Torque Per Ampere (MTPA) strategy developed for the three-phase machine is clearly not satisfying on the whole range of speed because of the presence of iron losses whose values can no more be neglected at high speeds. Two other strategies have been then proposed to be able to manage the compromises, at high speeds, between the high values of torque and efficiency under the constraints of admissible total losses either in the rotor or in the stator. |

8 | CAILLARD Pierre, GILLON Frédéric, RANDI Sid-Ali, JANIAUD Noëlle "Mono and bi-level optimization architectures for powertrain design" The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 35, N°. 3, p. 847-859, 11, url, – The purpose of this paper is to compare two design optimization architectures for the optimal design of a complex device that integrates simultaneously the sizing of system components and the control strategy for increasing the energetic performances. The considered benchmark is a battery electric passenger car. Design/methodology/approach – The optimal design of an electric vehicle powertrain is addressed within this paper, with regards to performances and range. The objectives and constraints require simulating several vehicle operating points, each of them has one degree of freedom for the electric machine control. This control is usually determined separately for each point with a sampling or an optimization loop resulting in an architecture called bi-level. In some conditions, the control variables can be transferred to the design optimization loop by suppressing the inner loop to get a mono-level formulation. The paper describes in which conditions this transformation can be done and compares the results for both architectures. Findings – Results show a calculation time divided by more than 30 for the mono-level architecture compared to the natural bi-level on the study case. Even with the same models and optimization algorithms, the structure of the problem should be studied to improve the results, especially if computational cost is high. Originality/value – The compared architectures bring new guidelines in the field optimal design for electric powertrains. The way to formulate a design optimization with some inner degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on computing time and on the problem understanding. |

9 | KULKARNI Vanaitay, GIRAUD Frédéric, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, AMBERG Michel, BEN MRAD Ridah "Integration of a torsion-based shear-mode energy harvester and energy management electronics for a sensor module" Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 28, N°. 10, p. 1346-1357, 11, url, This work demonstrates the ability of a torsion-based shear-mode energy harvester to power a sensor module by integrating a temperature sensor circuit with a purpose developed piezoelectric energy harvester. A 10-cm3 energy harvester was developed for this application and was found to produce over 200 µW of maximum power through an optimal load resistance under 0.25 gpk acceleration excitation at its resonant frequency of 237 Hz. This harvester was then tested with two interface circuits: a standard interface diode bridge rectifier and a nonlinear synchronous electrical charge extraction circuit that were compared for their suitability in powering the sensor module. Through this, the synchronous electrical charge extraction nonlinear conditioning circuit was found to have superior performance when charging a capacitor and with DC loads at low voltages and was capable of providing a maximum power output of 37 µW under 0.25 gpk acceleration at 237 Hz. This output power was then used to successfully power a temperature sensor module consisting of a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, and a radio-frequency identification memory chip at a sensing frequency of 0.5 Hz. |

10 | AMAMRA Sid-Ali, COLAS Frédéric, GUILLAUD Xavier, RAULT Pierre, NGUEFEU Samuel "Laboratory Demonstration of a Multi-Terminal VSC-HVDC Power Grid" IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. PP, N°. 99, 11, This paper presents the design, development, control and supervision of a hardware-based laboratory Multi- Terminal-Direct-Current (MTDC) test-bed. This work is a part of the TWENTIES (Transmission system operation with large penetration of Wind and other renewable Electricity sources in Networks by means of innovative Tools and Integrated Energy Solutions) DEMO 3 European project which aims to demonstrate the feasibility of a DC grid through experimental tests. This is a hardware-in-the-loop DC system test-bed with simulated AC systems in real time simulation; the DC cables and some converters are actual, at laboratory scale. The laboratory scale test-bed is homothetic to a full scale high voltage direct current (HVDC) system: electrical elements are the same in per unit. The test-bed is supervised by a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) system based on PcVue. Primary control based droop control method to provide DC grid power balance and coordinated control methods to dispatch power as scheduled by transmission system operator (TSO) are implemented. Since primary control acts as converter level by using local measurements, a coordinated control is proposed to manage the DC grid power flow. The implemented system is innovative and achievable for real-time, real-world MTDC-HVDC grid applications. |

11 | FALL Ousmane, NGUYEN Ngac Ky, CHARPENTIER Jean-Frédéric, LETELLIER Paul, SEMAIL Eric, KESTELYN Xavier "Variable Speed Control of a 5-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Including Voltage and Current Limits in Healthy and Open-Circuited Modes" Electric Power Systems Research, Elsevier, Vol. 140, p. 507-516, 11, This paper proposes a novel variable speed control strategy of a particular 5-phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) in healthy and faulty modes by taking into account the constraints on voltages and currents. These constraints are related to the converter and machine design. The considered faults are open-circuited phases (one phase, two adjacent phases and two non-adjacent phases). A variable speed control strategy is presented, including flux weakening operations. Based on analytical formulations, a numerical computation is proposed to bring out the torque-speed characteristics. This method allows the determination of the current references which ensure the functioning of a 5-phase PMSG at variable speed while keeping phase voltages and currents below their limits. Theoretical, numerical and experimental results are presented. These results are compared in order to validate the proposed approach. |

12 | LA DELFA Patricio, HECQUET Michel, GILLON Frédéric, FAKAM Mathias "Low space order analysis of radial pressure in SPMSM with analytical and convolution approaches" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 11, 11, Abstract— This paper presents an analysis of low the space order of the air-gap radial Maxwell pressures in Surface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (SPMSM) with fractional slot concentrated windings. The air-gap Maxwell pressures result from the multiplication of the flux density harmonics due to magnetomotive forces and permeance linked to the magnet, the armature, and the stator slots and their interactions. One low space order is selected and different approaches are compared to determine the origin of this pressure. First, an analytical prediction tool ACHFO (Analytical Calculation of Harmonic Force Orders) is issues to calculate the space and time orders of these magnetic pressure harmonics while identifying their origin in terms of interactions between magnet, armature and teeth effects. Additionally, the analytical prediction of ACHFO is compared with the flux density convolution and finite element approaches. The main advantage of our tool is the speed of computation. Finally, an experimental Operational Deflection Shape measurement (ODS) is performed to show the deflection shape of the low space order selected. Keywords— air-gap radial Maxwell pressures; lowest space order; analytical tool; convolution analysis; operational deflection shape. |

13 | TANNO-IAMAMURA Bruno, ROSSI Mathieu, HECQUET Michel, LANFRANCHI Vincent, RECORBET Sylvain, TRIDON Florence "Vibration and acoustic noise of industrial inductors associated to converters in railway domain: design and material impacts" The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. Issue 35, N°. 6, 11, Acoustic comfort is an increasingly important factor at the design stage of industrial inductors associated to converters. In addition, power converters in railway domain are more and more compact and powerful. In this paper, inductors with different air-gap materials are used in order to reduce vibration and noise of inductors. Finite element calculations are performed and the detail of the origin of electromagnetic noise is studied. Electric and vibratory measurements (modal and operational analysis) are compared with the numerical calculations. |

14 | MORIN Juliette, COLAS Frédéric, DIEULOT Jean-Yves, GRENARD Sébastien, GUILLAUD Xavier "Embedding OLTC nonlinearities in predictive Volt Var Control for active distribution networks" Electric Power System Research, 10 |

15 | BERARDANGO Marta, THOMAS Olivier, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, MANZONI Stefano "Improved shunt damping with two negative capacitances: an efficient alternative to resonant shunt" Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 28, N°. 16, p. 2222-2238, 9 |

16 | GHENNA Sofiane, VEZZOLI Eric, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, GIRAUD Frédéric, AMBERG Michel, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty "Enhancing Variable Friction Tactile Display using an ultrasonic travelling wave" IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 9, url, In Variable Friction Tactile Displays, an ultrasonic standing wave can be used to reduce the friction coefficient between a user’s finger sliding and a vibrating surface. However, by principle, the effect is limited by a saturation due to the contact mechanics, and very low friction levels require very high vibration amplitudes. Besides, to be effective, the user’s finger has to move. We present a device which uses a travelling wave rather than a standing wave. We present a control that allows to realize such a travelling wave in a robust way, and thus can be implemented on various plane surfaces. We show experimentally that the force produced by the travelling wave has two superimposed contributions. The first one is equal to the friction reduction produced by a standing of the same vibration amplitude. The second produces a driving force in the opposite direction of the travelling wave. As a result, the modulation range of the tangential force on the finger can be extended to zero and even negative values. Moreover, the effect is dependant on the relative direction of exploration with regards to the travelling wave, which is perceivable and confirmed by a psycho-physical study. |

17 | SAMIMI Shabab, GRUSON François, DELARUE Philippe, COLAS Frédéric, BELHAOUNE Moez, GUILLAUD Xavier "MMC Stored Energy Participation to the DC Bus Voltage Control in an HVDC Link" IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 31, N°. 4, p. 1710-1718, 8, The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is be- coming a promising converter technology for HVDC transmission systems. Contrary to the conventional two- or three-level VSC-HVDC links, no capacitors are connected directly on the dc bus in an MMC-HVDC link. Therefore, in such an HVDC link, the dc bus voltage may be much more volatile than in a conventional VSC-HVDC link. In this paper, a connection between the dc bus voltage level and the stored energy inside the MMC is proposed in order to greatly improve the dynamic behavior in case of transients. EMT simulation results illustrate this interesting property on an HVDC link study case. |

18 | TRABELSI Mohamed, NGUYEN Ngac Ky, SEMAIL Eric "Real-time Switches Fault Diagnosis based on Typical Operating Characteristics of Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines" IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 63, N°. 8, p. 4683-4696, 8, A novel centroid-based diagnostic method of the power switches in five-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is proposed in this paper. Using a vectorial multi-machine description, a five-phase drive presenting an opened switch or an opened phase faults has typical operating characteristics in comparison to classical three-phase drives. Based on such characteristics, this work aims to provide a simple and robust diagnostic process for switches fault regardless of the shape of the back-EMFs (harmonic components) and the transient states due to the load variation. Original theoretical developments are presented. Experimental results are shown to validate the proposed strategy. |

19 | ZIANI Smail, HENNERON Thomas, PUIGDELLIVOL Oriol, LE MENACH Yvonnick "A method coupling modified vector potential A* and homogenization formulations to model short circuits in lamination stacks" The European Physical Journal - Applied Physics (EPJ AP), Vol. 75, N°. 3, p. 11, 8, In this paper a method in 2-D frequency domain is presented to simulate a laminated iron core with a short-circuit between several magnetic sheets. The approach consists in coupling homogenization methods and finite element method. The defect is modeled with A* modified vector potential formulation and the rest of the structure with a homogenization method. The coupled method is applied to a lamination stack containing a short-circuit and compared to the reference, where the A* formulation is applied on the whole domain. Finally, a thermal modeling of lamination stack is presented to study the influence of an insulating defect. |

20 | BERARDANGO Marta, THOMAS Olivier, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, MANZONI Stefano "Improved resistive shunt by means of negative capacitance: new circuit, performances and multi-mode control" Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 25, N°. 7, p. 075033, 7, This paper deals with vibration control by means of piezoelectric patches hunted with electrical impedances made up by a resistance and a negative capacitance. The paper analyses most of the possible layouts by which a negative capacitance can be built and shows that a common mathematical description is possible. This allows closed formulations to be found in order to optimise the electrical network for mono- and multi-mode control. General analytical formulations are obtained to estimate the performance of the shunt in terms of vibration reduction. In particular, it is highlighted that the main effect of a negative capacitance is to artificially enhance the electromechanical coupling factor, which is the basis of performance estimation. Stability issues relating to the use of negative capacitances are especially addressed using refined models for piezoelectric patch capacitance. Furthermore, a new circuit based on a couple of negative capacitances is proposed and tested, showing a better performance than those provided by the usual layouts with a single negative capacitance. Finally, guidelines and analytical formulations to deal with the practical implementation of negative capacitance circuits are provided. |

21 | HAMADA Souad, LOUAI Fatima Zohra, NAIT-SAID Nasreddine, BENABOU Abdelkader "Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model" Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (JMMM), Vol. 410, p. 137-143, 7, url, An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed. |

22 | TAN Wenhua, MARGUERON Xavier, TAYLOR Laurent, IDIR Nadir "Leakage Inductance Analytical Calculation for Planar Components with Leakage Layers" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 31, N°. 6, p. 4462-4473, 6, url, Planar magnetic components are promising solutions for the integration of power electronic systems. The leakage inductance of such components plays an essential role in power converters. In this paper, an analytical modeling method for leakage inductance computation is developped for planar components with plasto-ferrite leakage layers. This method is based on the solution of Poisson’s equations for magneto-static using multilayered Green’s functions. The obtained formulations are general and precise and have been validated by numerical tests. Experimental characterizations have been performed on two magnetic components: A planar LLC and planar common mode choke. The obtained results show that with the described method, the static leakage inductance of planar components can be accurately estimated. |

23 | TRUONG Phuoc Hoa, FLIELLER Damien, NGUYEN Ngac Ky, MERCKLE Jean, STURTZER Guy "Torque Ripple Minimization in Non-Sinusoidal Synchronous Reluctance Motors Based on Artificial Neural Networks" Electric Power Systems Research, Elsevier., 6, This paper proposes a new method based on Artificial Neural Networks for reducing the torque ripple in a non-sinusoidal Synchronous Reluctance Motor. The Lagrange optimization method is used to solve the problem of calculating optimal currents in the d-q frame. A neural control scheme is then proposed as an adaptive solution to derive the optimal stator currents giving a constant electromagnetic torque and minimizing the ohmic losses.Thanks to the online learning capacity of neural networks, the optimal currents can be obtained online in real time. With this neural control, each machine’s parameters estimation errors and current controller errors can be compensated. Simulation and experimental results are presented which confirm the validity of the proposed method. |

24 | MESBAHI Tedjani, KHENFRI Fouad, RIZOUG Nassim, BARTHOLOMEUS Patrick, LE MOIGNE Philippe "Combined Optimal Sizing and Control of Li-Ion Battery/Supercapacitor Embedded Power Supply Using Hybrid Particle Swarm-Nelder-Mead Algorithm" IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, Vol. 8, N°. 1, p. pp.59-73, 6, url, This paper examines and optimizes parameters that affect the sizing and control of a hybrid embedded power supply composed of Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors in electric vehicle applications. High demands including power and energy density, low charge/discharge power stress on the battery (long lifetime), lightweight design and relatively modest cost at the same time cannot be provided solely by batteries or supercapacitors. For this reason, we propose the use of a Li-ion battery/supercapacitor hybrid embedded power supply for an urban electric vehicle. The sizing process of this system including the optimization of the power sharing is done thanks to a developed hybrid Particle Swarm–Nelder–Mead (PSO–NM) algorithm involving multi-objective optimization. This approach also allows us to optimize the proposed energy management strategies based on frequency rule-based control and different ways of supercapacitors energy regulation. Obtained results show that the hybrid embedded power supply with the proposed control strategies is able to offer the best performances for the chosen electric vehicle in terms of weight, initial cost and battery lifetime. |

25 | CUELLAR Carlos, IDIR Nadir, BENABOU Abdelkader "High Frequency Behavioral Ring Core Inductor Model" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 31, N°. 5, p. 3763 - 3772, 5, The switching of the power semiconductors in static converters is the main source of electromagnetic interferences (EMI). To meet with Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standards, it is necessary to reduce the level of the conducted emissions. This reduction can be achieved by different techniques including the EMI filters whose design is mainly based on the use of ring core inductors. This element is a key point for designing efficient EMI filters, requiring then accurate inductor high frequency (HF) models. Therefore, the present paper deals with the development of a HF behavioral model of inductors, based on electrical equivalent circuit, for an implementation in circuit simulation software. The aim is to provide a robust and adjustable model under small-signal operating conditions for frequencies up to 100MHz. The proposed model considers the frequency dependent properties of the magnetic core material and also includes the parameterization of the electrical equivalent circuit elements with the number of winding turns and dimension of the magnetic core. Simulations results using the obtained inductor model are validated by impedance measurements with two types of magnetic materials: Ferrite and Nanocrystalline |

26 | BACCHUS Alexandre, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, ARGAUD Jean-Philippe, BOURIQUET Bertrand, BIET Mélisande, MACAIRE Ludovic, LE MENACH Yvonnick "Estimation of FEM Model Parameters Using Data Assimilation and Its Application to an Electrical Machine" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 5, url |

27 | TAYLOR Laurent, HENNERON Thomas, MARGUERON Xavier, LE MENACH Yvonnick, LE MOIGNE Philippe "Model-Order Reduction of Magneto-harmonic Problems Based on POD. Application to Planar Magnetic Components" The European Physical Journal - Applied Physics (EPJ AP), Vol. 74, N°. 1, p. 10903, 4, url, Predetermination of losses and inductance values in the design phase, is necessary for the development of high-performance magnetic components for power electronics. Numerical modeling, based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) can be used to determine the characteristics of a particular component with a complex geometry in high frequency (HF). These models are very accurate but the computation time required is high compared to analytical models. The Model Order Reduction (MOR) methods can be applied to reduce the computation time while maintaining high accuracy. Nowadays, the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is the most popular of MOR approaches. This technique has been applied to study problems in many elds of engineering. In this paper, the POD method is developed to solve magneto-harmonic problems in order to study a planar magnetic inductor. |

28 | SOURON Quentin, LE BESNERAIS Jean, HECQUET Michel "Analysis of electromagnetically-induced vibrations of electrical machines based on spatiogram technique" International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), Vol. 51, N°. S1, p. S23 - S32, ISBN DOI: 10.3233/JAE-2021, 4 |

29 | MAYET Clément, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHATTOT Eric, VERHILLE Jean-Noël "Comparison of Different EMR-based Models of Traction Power Substations for Energetic Studies of Subway Lines" IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 65, N°. 3, p. 1021-1029, 3, Simulation is a valuable way to develop cleaner transportation systems. Nevertheless, the complexity of this kind of system conducts to complex models, especially to take into account non-linear aspects of traction power substations (TPS). This paper proposes thus different TPS models based on the Energetic Macroscopic Representation. An appropriate model is deduced from comparisons between the different models to realize energetic studies. It is finally applied to the simulation of a simple subway line, which is experimentally validated. |

30 | PIERQUIN Antoine, HENNERON Thomas, BRISSET Stéphane, CLENET Stéphane "Multirate coupling of controlled rectifier and non-linear finite element model based on Waveform Relaxation Method" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3 |

31 | PIERQUIN Antoine, BRISSET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas "Multidisciplinary optimization formulation for the optimization of multirate systems" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3 |

32 | CARON Guillaume, HENNERON Thomas, PIRIOU Francis, MIPO Jean-Claude "Time periodicity condition of nonlinear magnetostatic problem coupled with electric circuit imposed by Waveform Relaxation Method" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, ISBN 0018-9464, 3, url, In numerical computation, the finite element (FE) method associated with external electric circuits is often used to evaluate electromagnetic devices with voltage sources. To study the solution of the steady state, the computation time can be prohibitive due to a large transient state compared to the time step used to discretize the time domain. In this paper, a method based on Waveform Relaxation Method is developed in order to impose the steady state of the solution in the case of a nonlinear magnetostatic problem coupled with electric circuit equations. |

33 | LIU Sijun, MAC Duy Hung, CLENET Stéphane, COOREVITS Thierry, MIPO Jean-Claude "Study of the Influence of the Fabrication Process Imperfections on the Performance of a Claw Pole Synchronous Machine Using a Stochastic Approach" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3, url |

34 | BOUGHANMI Walid, HENROTTE François, BENABOU Abdelkader, LE MENACH Yvonnick "Finite Element Implementation and Experimental Validation of 2-D/3-D Magnetic Force Formulas" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 2, 3, url, A framework for the finite element implementation of the formulas of local and global electromagnetic forces is presented. The theoretical framework, based on the Lie derivative, is applicable to 2-D and 3-D problems in the presence of arbitrary materials. The numerical properties of the proposed implementation, in terms of accuracy and convergence, are analyzed. An experimental setup is also presented for which accurate measurements have been carried out, and that can serve as a benchmark for the implementation. |

35 | SCUILLER Franck, ZAHR Hussein, SEMAIL Eric "Maximum reachable torque, power and speed for five-phase SPM machine with low armature reaction" IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 31, N°. 3, p. 959 - 969, 3, url, In this paper, the study of the torque and power versus speed characteristics for a family of five-phase Surfacemounted Permanent Magnet (SPM) machine is carried out. With considering hypotheses (linear magnetic modeling, only first and third harmonic terms in the back-emf and current spectrums), an optimization problem that aims to maximize the torque for given maximum peak voltage and RMS current is formulated: the optimal torque sharing among the two virtual machines (the two dq-axis subspaces) that represent the real five-phase machine is thus calculated for any mechanical speed. For an inverter and a DC voltage sized with only considering the first harmonic of backemf and current, the problem is solved with changing the virtual machine back-emfs and inductances ratios. With the introduction of the maximum torque/speed point, maximum power/speed point and maximum reachable speed, it can be shown that, if the inductance ratio is large enough, for given Volt-Ampere rating, the machine can produce higher torque without reducing its speed range thus meaning that the capability of the inverter to work is improved with the use of the third harmonic. This property is all the truer as the base armature reaction is large. A particular five-phase machine is sized and numerically analyzed to check this property. |

36 | MONTIER Laurent, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane, GOURSAUD Benjamin "Transient simulation of an electrical rotating machine achieved through model order reduction" Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences, Vol. 3, N°. 10, 3, url, Model order reduction (MOR) methods are more and more applied on many different fields of physics in order to reduce the number of unknowns and thus the computational time of large-scale systems. However, their application is quite recent in the field of computational electromagnetics. In the case of electrical machine, the numerical model has to take into account the nonlinear behaviour of ferromagnetic materials, motion of the rotor, circuit equations and mechanical coupling. In this context, we propose to apply the proper orthogonal decomposition combined with the (Discrete) empirical interpolation method in order to reduce the computation time required to study the start-up of an electrical machine until it reaches the steady state. An empirical offline/online approach based on electrical engineering is proposed in order to build an efficient reduced model accurate on the whole operating range. Finally, a 2D example of a synchronous machine is studied with a reduced model deduced from the proposed approach. |

37 | SARABI Siyamak, DAVIGNY Arnaud, COURTECUISSE Vincent, RIFFONNEAU Yann, ROBYNS Benoît "Potential of Vehicle-to-Grid Ancillary Services Considering the Uncertainties in Plug-in Electric Vehicle Availability and Service/Localization Limitations in Distribution Grids" Applied Energy, Vol. 171, p. 523-540, ISBN 0306-2619, 3, url, he aim of the paper is to propose an approach for statistical assessment of the potential of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) ancillary services, where it focuses on PEVs doing daily home-work commuting. In this approach, the possible ancillary services (A/S) for each PEV ﬂeet in terms of its available V2G power (AVP) and ﬂexible intervals are identiﬁed. The ﬂexible interval is calculated using a powerful stochastic global optimization technique so-called ‘‘Free Pattern Search” (FPS). A probabilistic method is also proposed to quantify the impacts of PEV’s availability uncertainty using the Gaussian mixture model (GMM), and interdependency of stochastic variables on AVP of each ﬂeet thanks to a multivariate modeling with Copula function. Each ﬂeet is analyzed based on its aggregated PEV numbers at different level of distribution grid, in order to satisfy the ancillary services localization limitation. A case study using the proposed approach evaluates the real potential in Niort, a city in west of France. In fact, by using the proposed approach an aggregator can analyze the V2G potential of PEVs under its contract. |

38 | WANG Zifu, HENNERON Thomas, HOFMANN Heath "Space-Time Field Projection: Finite-Element Analysis Coupled Between Different Meshes and Different Time-Step Settings" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3 |

39 | HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Application of the PGD and DEIM to Solve a 3-D Non-Linear Magnetostatic Problem Coupled With the Circuit Equations" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3 |

40 | NGUYEN Thu-Trang, MAC Duy Hung, CLENET Stéphane "Uncertainty Quantification Using Sparse Approximation for Models With a High Number of Parameters: Application to a Magnetoelectric Sensor" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, ISBN 0018-9464, 3 |

41 | CLENET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas, IDA Nathan "Reduction of a Finite-Element Parametric Model Using Adaptive POD Methods—Application to Uncertainty Quantification" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3 |

42 | CLENET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas "Error Estimation for Model Order Reduction of Finite Element Parametric Problems" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 8, p. 1-10, 3, url |

43 | CASTAINGS Ali, LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi, BOUSCAYROL Alain "Comparison of energy management strategies of a battery/supercapacitors system for Electric Vehicle under real-time constraints" Applied Energy, Vol. 163, p. 190-200, 2 |

44 | MESBAHI Tedjani, KHENFRI Fouad, RIZOUG Nassim, BARTHOLOMEUS Patrick, LE MOIGNE Philippe "Dynamical Modeling of Li-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicle Applications Based on Hybrid Particle Swarm-Nelder-Mead (PSO-NM) Optimization Algorithm" Electric Power Systems Research Journal, Elsevier, Vol. 131, N°. C, p. 195-204, 2, url, In recent years, Li-ion batteries are widely used in various applications, such as electric and hybrid vehicles application. Their higher specific power and energy density, high cycle lifetime and decreasing costs have made them an attractive and alternative energy storage technology to lead-acid or nickel- metal hydride batteries in embedded power supplies. In the present work, the electric modeling of a Li-ion battery cell in real operating conditions imposed by an electric vehicle application is carried out. A dynamic equivalent circuit model has been used to simulate several electrochemical processes occurring in a commercially available 40 Ah Li-ion battery cell with NMC cathode material and graphitic anode. The model is parameterized with measurement data in time-domain using a hybrid Particle Swarm–Nelder–Mead (PSO–NM) optimization algorithm. This last one is used to solve the parameters identification problem of Li-ion battery model. The developed model of Li-ion battery cell has been validated on real driving cycle provided by an urban electric vehicle. Obtained results show that there is a good match between experiment and simulation results with a maximum modeling error less than 0.5%, which proves the well performance of our model and confirm the interest of a hybrid (PSO–NM) optimization algorithm for battery identification parameters. |

45 | BEN MESSAOUD Wael, GIRAUD Frédéric, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, AMBERG Michel, BUENO Marie-Ange "Amplitude control of an ultrasonic vibration for a tactile stimulator" IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol. 21, N°. 3, ISBN DOI: 10.1109/TMECH.2016.2535300, 2, url, This paper describes the control in a (d-q) frame of the vibration amplitude of a tactile stimulator based on ultrasonic vibrations. The goal is to fulfil simultaneously two objectives: maintain a constant level of vibration amplitude and excite the system at the resonance frequency. A new modelling approach is presented in order to facilitate the control and to fulfil the two objectives simultaneously. Then, thanks to an experimental setup, the validation of the new model is performed. Finally, the result of the closed loop control over a wide range of disturbing factors is presented. |

46 | BEN MESSAOUD Wael, BUENO Marie-Ange, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty "Relation between human perceived friction and finger friction characteristics" ELSEVIER Tribology International, Vol. 98, p. 261–269, ISBN doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2016.02.031, 2, url, The topic of this paper concerns the relation between friction perception and finger friction behaviour. Two experiments were processed for some 20 individuals. The aim of the first experiment was to determine the distribution function of the perceived friction variation detected by the individuals, relating to the friction variation of the touched surface generated with a tactile stimulator. The second experiment was to determine the finger friction criterion correlated with the perceived friction variation analysed from psychophysical techniques. This criterion, called the friction contrast, depends on the individual finger and is influenced by the sliding velocity. |

47 | LI Ke, VIDET Arnaud, IDIR Nadir "Characterization Method of SiC-JFET Interelectrode Capacitances in Linear Region" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 31, N°. 2, p. 1528-1540, 2, url, In order to study switching waveforms of a SiCJFET, its inter-electrode capacitances evolution is necessary when the power device is in linear region. In this paper, the reverse transfer capacitance Cgd is at first characterized by the multiplecurrent- probe method and afterwards validated by the measurement with an impedance analyzer. The output capacitance Coss is measured by the same method and compared with the single-pulse characterization, which shows a huge increase of the apparent capacitance values in linear region. The influence of the power transistor internal gate resistor is thus studied, revealing the inter-electrode capacitances measurement difficulties when the power device is in linear region. The characterization results are allowed to finely model the power transistor of which the switching behaviors are validated with the measurement in a buck converter. |

48 | DO Minh Thang, SOUBDHAN Ted, ROBYNS Benoît "A study on the minimum duration of training data to provide a high accuracy forecast for PV generation between two different climatic zones" Renewable Energy, Elsevier, Vol. 85, p. 959–964, 1, This study focus on the minimum duration of training data required for PV generation forecast. In order to investigate this issue, the study is implemented on 2 PV installations: the first one in Guadeloupe represented for tropical climate, the second in Lille represented for temperate climate; using 3 different forecast models: the Scaled Persistence Model, the Artificial Neural Network and the Multivariate Polynomial Model. The usual statistical forecasting error indicators: NMBE, NMAE and NRMSE are computed in order to compare the accuracy of forecasts. The results show that with the temperate climate such as Lille, a longer training duration is needed. However, once the model is trained, the performance is better. |

49 | NGUYEN Ngac Ky, MEINGUET Fabien, SEMAIL Eric, KESTELYN Xavier "Fault-Tolerant Operation of an Open-End Winding Five-Phase PMSM Drive with Short-Circuit Inverter Fault" IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 63, N°. 1, p. 595-605, ISBN 0278-0046, 1, url, Multi-phase machines are well-known for their fault tolerant capability. Star-connected multiphase machines have fault tolerance in open-circuit. For inverter switch short-circuit fault, it is possible to keep a smooth torque of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) if the currents of faulty phases are determined and their values are acceptable. This paper investigates fault-tolerant operations of an open-end five-phase drive, i.e. a multi-phase machine fed with a dual-inverter supply. Inverter switch short-circuit fault is considered and handled with a simple solution. Original theoretical developments are presented. Simulation and experimental results validate the proposed strategy. |

1 | LI Ke, VIDET Arnaud, IDIR Nadir "Fast Power Semiconductors Switching Current Measurement by Current Surface Probe" EPE Journal, Vol. 25, N°. 4, p. 10, 12, With the advantage of high bandwidth and small insertion impedance, a current surface probe (CSP) used to measure switching current waveforms is presented in this paper. Its transfer impedance is characterized and validated by measuring an IGBT switching current that is compared with those obtained with a current probe (CP), a current shunt (CS) and a Hall effect current probe (HECP). Furthermore, by comparing with a CS to measure a GaN-HEMT switching current, it is shown that CSP is able to measure a switching current of a few nanoseconds, while it brings no influence on transistor voltage waveform measurement. The obtained results show that, the use of CSP brings little parasitic inductances in the measurement circuit and it does not bring the connection of the ground to the power converter, which is the case for the CS. |

2 | KOTNY Jean-Luc, DUQUESNE Thierry, IDIR Nadir "Influence of the common mode impedance paths on the design of the EMI filters used with SiC-buck converter" ADVANCED ELECTROMAGNETICS (AEM), Vol. 4, N°. 2, p. 44-53, ISBN 2119-0275, 12, url, This paper deals the design method of EMI filter associated with buck converter using silicon carbide (SiC) power semi-conductors. It's well known that to comply with EMC standards, EMI filters are necessary. The aim is to propose a design method based on an equivalent electrical circuit. Thus, the first step is the identification of the different elements of the proposed model but also the limits values of the parasitic elements of the passive components which play a major influence on the efficiency of the filters. The main objective is to study the influence of the common mode paths on the design of the filter before and after its installation. A filtering solution is proposed to reduce the high frequency disturbances caused by the fast SiC components. The simulation results obtained with the proposed model are compared with the measurements show the effectiveness of the proposed EMI filter design method. |

3 | MAC Duy Hung, TANG Zuqi, CLENET Stéphane, CREUSE Emmanuel "Residual a posteriori error estimation for a stochastic magnetostatic problem" Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 289, p. 51--67, 12, url, In this paper, we propose an a posteriori error estimator for the numerical approximation of a stochastic magnetostatic problem, whose solution depends on the spatial variable but also on a stochastic one. The spatial discretization is performed with finite elements and the stochastic one with a polynomial chaos expansion. As a consequence, the numerical error results from these two levels of discretization. In this paper, we propose an error estimator that takes into account these two sources of error, and which is evaluated from the residuals. |

4 | CHEN Chao, CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, TANG Zuqi "Residual-based a posteriori estimators for the potential formulations of electrostatic and time-harmonic eddy current problems with voltage or current excitation" International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 107, N°. 5, p. 377--394, 12, url, In this paper, we consider some potential formulations of electrostatic as well as time-harmonic eddy current problems with voltage or current excitation sources. The well-posedness of each formulation is first established. Then, the reliability of the corresponding residual-based a posteriori estimators is derived in the context of the finite element method approximation. Finally, the implementation in an industrial code is performed, and the obtained theoretical results are illustrated on an academic and on an industrial benchmark. |

5 | GHENNAM Tarak, ALIOUANE K, AKEL F, FRANCOIS Bruno, BERKOUK EL Madjid "Advanced Control System of DFIG Based Wind Generators for Reactive Power Production and Integration in a Wind Farm Dispatching" Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 105, p. 240 - 250, 11 |

6 | CASTAINGS Ali, LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi, BOUSCAYROL Alain "Practical control schemes of a battery/supercapacitor system for electric vehicle" IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, Vol. 6, N°. 1, p. 20-26, 11 |

7 | VEZZOLI Eric, BEN MESSAOUD Wael, NADAL Clément, GIRAUD Frédéric, AMBERG Michel, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, BUENO Marie-Ange "Coupling of ultrasonic vibration and electrovibration for tactile stimulation" European Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 17, N°. 5-6, p. 377-395, ISBN doi:10.3166/ejee.17.377-395, 11, url, RÉSUMÉ L’électrovibration et l’effet squeeze film produit par vibration ultrasonique sont deux principes de stimulation tactile permettant de modifier la sensation de toucher d’un utilisateur explorant une surface plane. Le présent article s’attache à démontrer leur compatibilité sur un même stimulateur tactile lors d’une utilisation concomitante. Une description du principe physique et des spécificités de chacun des phénomènes sera entreprise et les résultats expérimentaux obtenus lors de leur association seront par ailleurs présentés. ABSTRACT Electrovibration and squeeze film effect are two different principles, which modify the user’s perception of a surface. The first one is generated by the polarization of a finger approaching a high voltage supplied plate, and the latter by the ultrasonic vibration of a plate. Their compatibility on the same stimulator will be presented in this paper and their concomitant use will be proven. A parametric study on electrovibration in function of the material choice and a first experimental investigation of the validity of the squeeze film effect hypothesis are performed. A description of the physical principle and the characteristics of each effect will be proposed and force measurements of their coupling will be presented. |

8 | DIBANGOYE Jilles, DONIEC Arnaud, FAKHAM Hicham, COLAS Frédéric, GUILLAUD Xavier "Distributed Economic Dispatch of Embedded Generation in Smart Grids" Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 44, p. 64-78, 10 |

9 | DIEULOT Jean-Yves, COLAS Frédéric, CHALAL Lamine, DAUPHIN-TANGUY Geneviève "Economic supervisory predictive control of a hybrid power generation plant" Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 127, p. 221-229, 10, url, This work deals with the development of an economic supervisory predictive control method for the management of a hybrid renewable energy system. The hybrid cell integrates solar panels, a gas microturbine and a storage unit. Tuning the predictive controller is easy: the optimal criterion encompasses the environmental, fuel, energy delivery and storage costs. Short time predictions of the solar power are embedded in the supervisor which yields smoother battery control and better power management. Real-time experiments are driven in a Hardware-in-the-Loop framework illustrating the relevance of the proposed supervisory predictive control design. |

10 | GUILLAUD Xavier, FARUQUE Omar, TENINGE Alexandre, PAOLONE Mario, LAUSS Georg, DUFOUR Christian "Applications of Real-Time Simulation Technologies in Power and Energy Systems" IEEE on Power and Energy Technology Systems Journal,, Vol. 2, N°. 3, p. 103 - 105, 9 |

11 | YANG Yi, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, GIRAUD Frédéric, AMBERG Michel, ZHANG Yuru, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe "Power analysis for the design of a large area ultrasonic tactile touch panel" The European Physical Journal - Applied Physics (EPJ AP), Vol. 72, p. 1-11, 9, url, Tactile interfaces are intuitive but lack of haptic feedback. One method to provide tactile feed- back is to change the friction coeﬃcient of the touch surface. Several small-size tactile devices have been developed to provide programmable friction coeﬃcient based on the squeeze air ﬁlm eﬀect. This eﬀect is produced by ultrasonic vibration of the tactile plate thanks to piezoceramics. In order to design larger embedded tactile feedback areas, a key issue is the power consumption. In this paper, we present the power analysis of a tactile device which is based on the squeeze ﬁlm eﬀect. We ﬁrst investigate the source of power consumption by a series of measurements. Then, an analytical model is developed to estimate the power, which gives the conclusion that, when the vibration amplitude is constant, the power consumption is not related to the number of piezoelectric actuators. According to this result, we design a large area (198 mm × 138 mm) tactile plate with only eight piezoelectric actuators. Experimental results show that the power consumption of the large tactile plate is less than 2 W. Moreover, we also ﬁnd that the power consumption of the large tactile plate was predictable with the measurement results from small plates with an average error of less than 10%. |

12 | GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, GIRAUD Frédéric, AMBERG Michel, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty "Generalized modal analysis for closed-loop piezoelectric devices" Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 24, N°. 8, p. 085028, ISBN 0964-1726, 1361-665X, 8, url |

13 | ADOUNI A., LASSAAD S., FRANCOIS Bruno "Open-circuit fault detection and diagnosis in pulse-width modulation voltage source inverters based on novel pole voltage approach" Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control, Vol. 38, N°. 7, 8 |

14 | TANG Zuqi, LE MENACH Yvonnick, CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, PIRIOU Francis, NICOLAS Nemizt "A posteriori residual error estimators with mixed boundary conditions for quasi-static electromagnetic problem" The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 34, N°. 3, p. 724-739, 7, url |

15 | BUENO Marie-Ange, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, AMBERG Michel, GIRAUD Frédéric "Pile Surface Tactile Simulation: Role of the Slider Shape, Texture Close to Fingerprints, and the Joint Stiffness" Tribology Letters (Springer), Vol. 59, N°. 25, p. 2-12, 7, url, Stimulating the human hand with a tactile device in order to simulate pile fabric touch is a challenge. The stimulation has to be designed from the friction characteristics of the investigated pile surfaces, i.e. velvet fabrics. The tactile illusion of pile is given when touching the smooth plate of the tactile stimulator STIMTAC by modulating the coefﬁcient of friction between the plate and the ﬁnger during an active movement. In a preliminary study, ﬁve tribological features as velvet fabric character- istics were identiﬁed, used for the design of the stimulator’s control signal, and validated via psychophysical studies where real and simulated fabrics were compared. But a speciﬁc tribological feature described and expected by individuals was missing. Then, a tribological investigation has been done in order to obtain this tribological feature, with the ﬁve previous ones, by changing experimental conditions: slider shape, texture, and joint stiffness. The obtained results show that a rounded shape of the slider has an inﬂuence only on the friction force level, but a texture of the slider close to ﬁngerprints and a joint stiffness is crucial to obtain the missing characteristic and therefore for the pile surface tribological characterization. The role of the ﬁngerprints in touching grooved surfaces has been pub- lished before but not for pile surfaces. |

16 | LALOUNI S., REKIOUA Djamila, IDJDARENE Kassa, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm "Maximum Power Point Tracking Based Hybrid Hill Climb Search Method Applied to Wind Energy Conversion System" Electric Power Components and Systems, Vol. 43, N°. 8-10, p. 1028-1038, 6, url |

17 | ARBENZ Laure, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane, MIPO Jean-Claude, FAVEROLLE Pierre "Characterization of the local electrical properties of electrical machine parts with non-trivial geometry" International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), Vol. 48, N°. 2-3, p. 201-206, 6 |

18 | TANG Zuqi, LE MENACH Yvonnick, CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, PIRIOU Francis "Residual a posteriori estimator for magnetoharmonic potential formulations with global quantities for the source terms" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 51, N°. 3, 6, In the modeling of eddy current problems, potential formulations are widely used in recent days. In this paper, the results of residual-based a posteriori error estimators, which evaluate the discretization error in the finite-element computation, are extended to the case of several kinds of source terms for both A/φ and T/Ω harmonic formulations. The definitions of the estimators are given and some numerical examples are provided to show the behavior of the estimators. |

19 | LI Ke, VIDET Arnaud, IDIR Nadir "Using Current Surface Probe to Measure the Current of the Fast Power Semiconductors" IEEE Transactions on Power electronics, Vol. 30, 6, url, With the advantage of high bandwidth and small insertion impedance, a current surface probe (CSP) used to measure switching current waveforms is presented in this letter. Its transfer impedance is characterized and validated by measuring an IGBT switching current that is compared with those obtained with a current probe (CP) and a Hall effect current probe (HECP). Furthermore, by comparing with a current shunt (CS) to measure a GaN-HEMT switching current, it is shown that CSP is able to measure a switching current of a few nanoseconds, while it brings no influence on transistor voltage waveform measurement. The obtained results show that, the use of CSP brings little parasitic inductances in the measurement circuit and it does not bring the connection of the ground to the power converter. |

20 | PIERQUIN Antoine, BRISSET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Optimisation process to solve multirate system" Przeglad Elektrotechniczny, Vol. 2015, N°. 6, p. 54-57, 6, url |

21 | HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Proper Generalized Decomposition Method Applied to Solve 3-D Magnetoquasi-Static Field Problems Coupling With External Electric Circuits" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 51, N°. 6, 6 |

22 | BELAHCEN Anouar, RASILO Paavo, NGUYEN Thu-Trang, CLENET Stéphane "Uncertainty Propagation of Iron Loss from Characterization Measurements to Computation of Electrical Machines" The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 34, N°. 3, p. 624-636, 5 |

23 | MADANI LAYADI Toufik, CHAMPENOIS Gérard, MOSTEFAI Mohammed, ABBES Dhaker "Lifetime estimation tool of lead–acid batteries for hybrid power sources design" Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, Vol. 54, p. 36–48, ISBN 10.1016/j.simpat.2015.03.001, 5, url, Generally, battery lifespan depends on the number of cycles and depth of discharge (DOD). Nevertheless, in a renewable hybrid power system, charge and discharge cycles are random and not regular. Therefore, it is important to develop an aging model suitable to this case. Thus, in this paper, a pertinent way for aging lead–acid batteries connected to a stand-alone multi-source renewable system has been developed. It is based on the Rain Flow method for counting cycles and considers instantaneous DOD and average temperature. In fact, for each functioning year, a classification of the number of cycles according to the DOD is done. Then, based on these data, the battery degradation rate is estimated so that it is possible to draw conclusions about battery lifespan. The method has been successfully applied to a multi-source power system simulated dynamically under Matlab/Simulink. This last takes into account with good accuracy several inputs and elements such as sun irradiation, wind speed, load profile, photovoltaic generator, wind turbine, and diesel generator. Results show the influence of the DOD and the batteries nominal capacity on their lifespan. A mean of eight years’ life is detected. Finally, a reasonable over-sizing may favor battery longevity. |

24 | CHEAYTANI Jalal, BENABOU Abdelkader, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, DESSOUDE Maxime, CHEVALLIER Loïc, HENNERON Thomas "End-Region Leakage Fluxes and Losses Analysis of Cage Induction Motors Using 3-D Finite-Element Method" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 51, N°. 3, 4, url, The stray load losses (SLLs) in electrical machines represent a non-negligible contribution of the total losses and a key point for an accurate evaluation of the energy efficiency of considered device. In this paper, one aspect of these SLLs, the end-region leakage fluxes and losses, is investigated and considered for the case of a high-power cage induction motor. The study is performed at locked rotor, no-load, and rated load conditions using a 3-D finite-element modeling approach. The influence of the leakage flux on the end-region conductive parts of the motor is analyzed together with the eddy current loss calculation. Finally, the SLLs are calculated and compared with the experimental measurements based on the IEEE standard 112-method B test. |

25 | FAKAM Mathias, HECQUET Michel, LANFRANCHI Vincent, RANDRIA Andry "Design and magnetic noise reduction of the Surface permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine using complex airgap permeance." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 51, N°. 4, 4, Nowadays, developing electric motorization for land vehicles is essential due to the crucial need to save energy. This paper presents the development of a tool used for optimal acoustic and electromechanical modeling whose highly accurate calculations and speed of resolution make it stand out from standard analytical and Finite Element models. By coupling an analytical model with static FE simulations, our ’hybrid’ model calculates a complex global air-gap permeance per area unit, to take into account magnetic wedge permeability, pre-slot height, and rotor shape. An unparalleled level of precision and speed of resolution is obtained for the computation of air-gap magnetic pressures. Several results of comparisons between acoustic measurements and simulations on a concentrated winding motor for different speeds are presented. |

26 | DULAR Patrick, LE MENACH Yvonnick, TANG Zuqi, CREUSE Emmanuel, PIRIOU Francis "Finite element mesh adaptation strategies from residual and hierarchical error estimators in eddy current problems" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 51, N°. 3, 4, url, A strategy of mesh adaptation in eddy current finite element modeling is developed from both residual and hierarchical error estimators. Wished distributions of element sizes of adapted meshes are determined from the element-wise local contributions to the estimators and define constraints for the mesh generator. Uniform distributions of the local error are searched. |

27 | HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Model-Order Reduction of Multiple-Input Non-Linear Systems Based on POD and DEI Methods " IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 51, N°. 3, 4 |

28 | WANG Zifu, HENNERON Thomas, PIRIOU Francis, MIPO Jean-Claude "Energetic Mesh-to-Mesh Projection of Magnetic Fields With Respect to Nonlinear B-H Curves" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 51, N°. 3, 4 |

29 | VEZZOLI Eric, BEN MESSAOUD Wael, AMBERG Michel, GIRAUD Frédéric, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty "Physical and perceptual independence of ultrasonic vibration and electrovibration for friction modulation" IEEE - Transaction on Haptics, Vol. 8, N°. 2, p. 235 - 239, ISBN 10.1109/TOH.2015.2430353, 4, url, Two different principles are available to modulate the user perceived roughness of a surface: electrovibration and ultrasonic vibration of a plate. The former enhances the perceived friction coefficient and the latter reduces it. This paper will highlight the independence of the two effects on the physical and perceptual point of view to confirm the increased range of sensation and stimulation that can be supplied by the two coupled techniques to the users. Firstly, a tribometric analysis of the induced lateral force on the finger by the two coupled effects will be presented, then a study on the dynamic of the two effects will be reported. In the end, a psychophysical experiment on the perception of the two coupled techniques will be shown. |

30 | HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Error estimation of a proper orthogonal decomposition reduced model of a permanent magnet synchronous machine" IET Science, Measurement & Technology, 3 |

31 | ZHONG QC, MALINOWSKI M, FRANCOIS Bruno, ROMERO-CADAVAL E "Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Generation Plant as Alternative Energy Sources" IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, Vol. 9, p. 18 - 32, 3 |

32 | TITTARELLI Roberta, LE MENACH Yvonnick, CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, PIRIOU Francis, MOREAU Olivier, BOITEAU Olivier "Space-time residual-based a posteriori estimator for the Α-φ formulation in eddy current problems." Magnetics, IEEE Transactions, Vol. 51, N°. 3, 3, In this work, an a posteriori residual error estimator is presented for the 3D eddy current problem modeled by the space-time A-phi potential formulation. It is solved by the finite element method in space and the backward Euler scheme in time. Once the reliability as well as the efficiency of the estimator are established, two numerical tests are proposed: an analytical one in order to validate the theoretical results and a physical one in order to illustrate the performance for a real eddy current problem. |

33 | OFFERMANN Peter, MAC Duy Hung, NGUYEN Thu-Trang, CLENET Stéphane, DE GERSEM Herbert, HAMEYER Kay "Uncertainty Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis in Electrical Machines With Stochastically Varying Machine Parameters" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 51, N°. 3, 3 |

34 | ARNOUX Pierre-Hadrien, CAILLARD Pierre, GILLON Frédéric "Modeling Finite-Element Constraint to Run an Electrical Machine Design Optimization Using Machine Learning" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 51, N°. 3, 3, url |

35 | PIERQUIN Antoine, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane, BRISSET Stéphane "Model Order Reduction of Magnetoquasistatic Problems Based on POD and Arnoldi-based Krylov Methods " IEEE Transactions on Magnetics , Vol. 51, N°. 3, 3 |

36 | MARLIER Clément, VIDET Arnaud, IDIR Nadir "NIF-Based Frequency-Domain Modeling Method of Three-Wire Shielded Energy Cables for EMC Simulation" IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 57, N°. 1, 2, url, This paper focuses on the modeling method of energy cables used in power conversion systems, in the aim of EMC simulation and overvoltage analysis. Based on the node-to-node functions method, A simple frequency-domain model with a reduced number of equivalent impedances is considered and applied to three-wire shielded cables, along with a fast identification method based on a cascaded-cell model. Even though the model eventually includes nonphysical virtual impedances, simulation in frequency domain provides accurate results when compared to equivalent experimental measurements, for various cable lengths and in short simulation times. Time-domain waveforms are then extracted from frequency-domain simulation and confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method in a wide frequency range up to 50 MHz. Finally, a good match has been found between experimental and simulation results of voltage overshoots on a buck power converter system. |

37 | HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHENG Yuan, EL FASSI Mehdi "Dynamical and quasi-static multi-physical models of a diesel internal combustion engine using Energetic Macroscopic Representation" Energy Conversion and Management (Elsevier), Vol. 91, p. 280 - 291, 2, In the simulation of new vehicles, the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is generally modeled by a static map. This model yields the mechanical power and the fuel consumption. But some studies require the heat energy from the ICE to be considered (i.e. waste heat recovery, thermal regulation of the cabin). A dynamical multi-physical model of a diesel engine is developed to consider its heat energy. This model is organized using Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) in order to be interconnected to other various models of vehicle subsystems. An experimental validation is provided. Moreover a multi-physical quasi-static model is also derived. According to different modeling aims, a comparison of the dynamical and the quasi-static model is discussed in the case of the simulation of a thermal vehicle. These multi-physical models with different simulation time consumption provide good basis for studying the effects of the thermal energy on the vehicle behaviors, including the possibilities of waste heat recovery. |

38 | WANG Ye, BAYEM Herman, GIRALT-DEVANT Maria, SILVA Vera, GUILLAUD Xavier, FRANCOIS Bruno "Methods for Assessing Available Wind Primary Power Reserve" IEEE Transactions On Sustainable Energy, Vol. 6, p. 272 - 280, 1 |

39 | DIEULOT Jean-Yves, COLAS Frédéric, CHALAL Lamine, DAUPHIN-TANGUY Geneviève "Event-triggered variable horizon Supervisory Predictive control of hybrid power plants" Control Engineering Practice, Vol. 34, p. 61-67, 1, url, The supervision of a hybrid power plant, including solar panels, a gas microturbine and a storage unit operating under varying solar power profiles is considered. The Economic Supervisory Predictive controller assigns the power references to the controlled subsystems of the hybrid cell using a financial criterion. A prediction of the renewable sources power is embedded into the supervisor. Results deteriorate when the solar power is unsteady, owing to the inaccuracy of the predictions for a long-range horizon of 10 s. The receding horizon is switched between an upper and a lower value according to the amplitude of the solar power trend. Theoretical results show the relevance of horizon switching, according to a tradeoff between performance and prediction accuracy. Experimental results, obtained in a Hardware In the Loop (HIL) framework, show the relevance of the variable horizon approach. Power amplifiers allow us to simulate virtual components, such as a gas microturbine, and to blend their powers with that of real devices (storage unit, real solar panels). In this case, fuel savings, reaching 15%, obtained under unsteady operating conditions lead to a better overall performance of the hybrid cell. The overall savings obtained in the experiments amount to 12%. |

40 | WANG Ye, BAYEM Herman, GIRALT-DEVANT Maria, SILVA Vera, GUILLAUD Xavier "Methods for Assessing Available Wind Primary Power Reserve " IEEE Transaction on Sustainable Energy, Vol. 6, N°. 1, p. 272 - 280, 1, To ensure power system security with very high wind generation (WG) penetration, the participation of wind generators in primary frequency control is essential. Previous studies have shown the technical capability of wind turbines to participate in primary frequency regulation at a wind farm level. In order to analyze, the contribution of wind power to primary frequency regulation at system level one needs to quantify the amount of primary reserve from conventional sources that can be displaced. This amount of reserve depends on the aggregated variability of WG during each reserve provision time-interval. This paper presents a statistical approach to assess the impact of intrahour wind power variability on the volume of primary reserve that can be provided from WG. Furthermore, the effectiveness of different reserve allocation strategies is compared. The proposed approach is applied to a case study based on real-wind data measurements from the French island of Guadeloupe. Results show that for a small isolated system neglecting WG intrahourly variability leads to an overestimation of its contribution to primary reserve. |

1 | SAMARKANOV Dmitry, GILLON Frédéric, BROCHET Pascal, LALOY Daniel "Bi-objective optimization of induction machine using interval-based interactive algorithms" COMPEL, Vol. 33, N°. 3, p. 729 - 744 ,, 12, url, Purpose – Discrete highly constrained optimization of induction machine taking into consideration two objective functions: efficiency and total costs of production. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – Interactive and semi-interactive interval-based optimization methods were used. Two concepts of multi-objective discrete optimization were proposed. Findings – Proposed methodology and algorithms allow decision maker (DM) participate in the process of optimal design and therefore decrease the total time of optimization process. The search procedure is straightforward and it does not require special skills of DM. Presented methods were successfully versified for the problem of optimal design with discrete variables. Research limitations/implications – Three interval algorithms suitable for inverse problems are researched and verified. It generally can be used for multi-objective problems. The dominance principles for interval boxes are showed in the paper. Proposed algorithms are based on the idea of hybridization of exact and evolutionary methods. Practical implications – Proposed approaches were successfully implemented within computer-aided application which is used by manufacturer of high power induction machine. Originality/value – The concept of pareto-domination using the interval boxes can be treated as original. The paper researched several elimination rules and discusses the difference between different approaches. |

2 | LALOUNI S., REKIOUA Djamila, IDJDARENE Kassa, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm "An improved MPPT algorithm for wind energy conversion system’" J. Electrical Systems, Vol. 10, N°. 4, p. 484-494, 12 |

3 | CUELLAR Carlos, IDIR Nadir, BENABOU Abdelkader, MARGUERON Xavier "High frequency current probes for common-mode impedance measurements of power converters under operating conditions" EPE Journal, Vol. 24, N°. 4, p. 48-55, 12, url, Two current probes are designed with the appropriate magnetic material in order to make impedance measurements in High Frequency (HF) using the Current Injection Method (CIM). These probes are then used to measure the common-mode impedance of power converters in real-operating conditions. The characterization of this impedance is required for a correct EMI filter design. In this paper, a simple formulation of the probe transfer impedance, based on S-parameters, is proposed. These probes allow improving the accuracy of impedance measurements in a wide frequency range, up to 100 MHz. The measured impedances of the power converter are then applied in the design of the common mode EMI filter under real operation conditions. The obtained insertion losses of the filter are finally compared with those measured under 50Ω-50Ω |

4 | HANCHEV H., COLAS Frédéric, LAZAROV Vladimir, FRANCOIS Bruno "Emission Reduction and Economical Optimization of an Microgrid Operation Including Dispatched PV-Based Active Generators" IEEE Transactions On Sustainable Energy, Vol. 5, N°. 4, p. 1755 - 1796, 10 |

5 | SILVA Luis, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DE ANGELO Christian, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty "Coupling Bond Graph and Energetic Macroscopic Representation for Electric Vehicle Simulation" Mechatronics Elsevier, Vol. 24, N°. 7, p. 906-913, 10, url, This paper deals with the analysis and simulation of an electric vehicle, coupling functional and structural approaches in the same simulation environment. The Bond Graph model, the structural approach, is ﬁrst deduced from the physical system, which in turn produces a direct correspondence between the system and its model. The control structure is then easily deduced from the Energetic Macroscopic Representa- tion, the functional approach, of the vehicle using a systematic procedure. Simulation results are provided in order to analyze the performance of the closed-loop system |

6 | SANDULESCU Alexandru-Paul, MEINGUET Fabien, KESTELYN Xavier, SEMAIL Eric, BRUYERE Antoine "Control Strategies for Open-End Winding Drives Operating in the Flux-Weakening Region" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 29, N°. 9, p. 13, 9, This paper presents and compares control strategies for three-phase open-end winding drives operating in the flux-weakening region. A six-leg inverter with a single dc-link is associated with the machine in order to use a single energy source. With this topology, the zero-sequence circuit has to be considered since the zero-sequence current can circulate in the windings. Therefore, conventional over-modulation strategies are not appropriate when the machine enters in the flux-weakening region. A few solutions dealing with the zero-sequence circuit have been proposed in literature. They use a modified space vector modulation or a conventional modulation with additional voltage limitations. The paper describes the aforementioned strategies and then a new strategy is proposed. This new strategy takes into account the magnitudes and phase angles of the voltage harmonic components. This yields better voltage utilization in the dq frame. Furthermore, inverter saturation is avoided in the zero-sequence frame and therefore zero-sequence current control is maintained. Three methods are implemented on a test bed composed of a three-phase permanent-magnet synchronous machine, a six-leg inverter and a hybrid DSP/FPGA controller. Experimental results are presented and compared for all strategies. A performance analysis is conducted as regards the region of operation and the machine parameters. |

7 | CUELLAR Carlos, BENABOU Abdelkader, IDIR Nadir "Characterization and modeling of hysteresis for magnetic materials used in EMI filters of power converters" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 29, N°. 9, p. 4911-4920, 9, The magnetic material when designing EMI filter determines the inductance value and the parasitic elements that influence the insertion loss effectiveness of the filter. Moreover, the EMI filter characterization is usually realized at low power levels (low current and low voltage). When the EMI filter is subjected to higher currents through its coils, the principal characteristics of the filter (inductance variation with current and frequency) are modified. To account for these variations in the design step, it is useful to take into account the hysteresis model that represents the inductive and dissipative effects. Therefore, in this paper, an approach combining a magnetic hysteresis model together with a concept of material capacitance is proposed. The model is identified from a single turn of flat copper ribbon (STFC) experimental setup. Then, the experimental data are modeled with the proposed hysteretic and capacitive material behavior model (HCM) that is implemented in an equivalent circuit modeling approach, accounting for both the magnetic behavior law together with the "material capacitance". The robustness of the proposed approach is evaluated by comparison and validation with the experiment results, showing good representation of the inductive and partially the dissipative effects |

8 | MESLEM Nacim, HIEU LE Vu Tuan, LABARRE Cécile, KOTNY Jean-Luc, IDIR Nadir "Set-membership methods applied to identify high-frequency elements of EMI filters" Control Engineering Practice Journal, Science Direct, ELSEVIER, Vol. 29, p. 13-22, 8, url, In order to enhance the performance of electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters, it is necessary to identify high-frequency parasitic elements of their passive components, mainly those related to the coupled inductors. Motivated by this issue, in this work a realistic high-frequency model is proposed for the coupled inductors. Actually, using interval analysis in particular the forward–backward contractor, a set-membership algorithm has been developed to estimate systematically the parasitic elements linked with the magnetic components. The main advantages of this algorithm compared to the fitting methods are the values of the estimated parameters are always positive and the corrupted data are taken into account. The comparison of the simulation results and the experimental data allows us to validate the proposed method. |

9 | BOUHALI Omar, RIZOUG Nassim, FRANCOIS Bruno "Equivalent Matrix Structure Modeling and Control of a Three-Phase Flying Capacitor Multilevel Inverter" IET Power Electronics, Vol. 7, p. 1755 - 1796, 7 |

10 | AMANCI Adrian, GIRAUD Frédéric, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, AMBERG Michel, DAWSON Francis "Analysis of the energy harvesting performance of a piezoelectric bender outside its resonance" Sensors & Actuators , Vol. 217, p. 129-138, 7, url, When the frequency of the source of vibration of a piezolectric generator is significantly different from its eigenfrequency, the dielectric power losses become prominent and decrease the amount of power which is practically harvested. For off-resonance vibrating frequencies, the optimal operating conditions can be obtained with a Maximum Power Point Tracking method. This paper introduces complex phasors in the study of power conversion for piezoelectric generators. These complex phasors are used to describe three strategies which help simplify the tracking of the optimal generator output power for vibration frequencies which are away from resonance. Experimental results obtained on a prototype illustrate and confirm the approach with the phasor approaches illustrate and confirm the success of the proposed optimal power tracking strategies. Finally, we show that the efficiency results of each strategy depend on whether they are used inside or outside a frequency bandwidth around the eigenfrequency, and that the length of this bandwidth depends on the excitation amplitude. |

11 | M’BOUNGUI Gaston, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, GIRAUD Frédéric, JIMOH Adisa "Development of a novel plane piezoelectric actuator using Hamilton’s principle based model and Hertz contact theory" Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 217, p. 116-123, 7, url, A simple device based on friction coefﬁcient control was designed as a solution to the lack of compact- ness and simplicity encountered in the number of force feedback interfaces. The structure comprises a 64 × 38 × 3 mm copper-beryllium plate on which well-adjusted polarized piezoceramics are glued. The plate stands on four legs, each of which has a spherical end. By controlling the drive voltage, friction force may be varied as required by a user who moves the device on a ﬂat surface, as he or she would do with a normal mouse. This adds the possibility of rendering simulated forces from objects manipulated on a PC screen. Friction forces obtained using Hertz contact theory compare well with the ones measured on an experimental setup, which demonstrate the validity of the approach with regard to force feedback application. |

12 | BOUHALI Omar, RIZOUG Nassim, FRANCOIS Bruno "Line-to-line Voltage Space Vector Modulation for NPC Multilevel Converter with DC-link capacitor voltage balancing using reduntant vectors" Journal of Electric Power Components and Systems, Vol. 42, p. 1070 - 1086, 6 |

13 | MARTIN Floran, ZAÏM Mohamed El Hadi, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, BERNARD Nicolas "Improved Analytical Determination of Eddy Current Losses in Surface Mounted Permanent Magnets of Synchronous Machine" IEEE Trans Mag., Vol. 50, N°. 6, 6 |

14 | SAAD Hani, DENNETIERE Sébastien, MAHSEREDJIAN Jean, DELARUE Philippe, GUILLAUD Xavier "Modular Multilevel Converter Models for Electromagnetic Transients" IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 29, N°. 3, p. 1481-1489, 6, Modular multilevel Converters(MMCs) may contain numerous insulated-gate bipolar transistors. The modeling of such converters for electromagnetic transient-type (EMT-type) simulations is complex. Detailed models used in MMC-HVDC simulations may require very large computing times. Simplified and averaged models have been proposed in the past to overcome this problem. In this paper, existing averaged and simplified models are improved in order to increase their range of applications. The models are compared and analyzed for different transient events on an MMC-HVDC system. |

15 | MEINGUET Fabien, SEMAIL Eric, KESTELYN Xavier, GYSELINCK Johan "A change-detection algorithm for short-circuit fault detection in closed-loop AC drives" IET Electric Power Applications, Vol. 8, N°. 5, p. 12, 5, url, This paper deals with an on-line method for turn-to-turn short-circuit fault detection in low-voltage permanent-magnet synchronous machine drives. Due to the closed-loop control, the fault effects are reflected in the voltage. Therefore, an appropriate diagnostic index is proposed, which is derived from the positive- and negative-sequences of the voltage references. These sequences are obtained in the time domain via adaptive filters, which require only a few calculations. To increase the sensitivity to the fault, the algorithm is only applied to a part of the voltage references, i.e. the output of the proportional-integral controllers. Further, the cumulative-sum algorithm is introduced to cope with changes of small magnitudes. This algorithm allows a change of a fault index to be detected and can be used as a decision system. The resulting fault detection scheme is computationally cheap and can be embedded in the control unit. Simulations and experimental results validate the proposed method in steady state and the performances under non-stationary operating conditions are also investigated. |

16 | BEN AYED Ramzi, BRISSET Stéphane "n-level output space mapping for electromagnetic design optimization" COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 33, N°. 3, p. 868 - 878, 5, Optimal design with the finite element models is often expensive in terms of the computation time. The space-mapping technique allows benefiting both the fast calculation of the coarse model and the accuracy of the fine one. In this paper, an n-level output space-mapping algorithm is proposed. The results show that the proposed algorithm allows saving computation time compared to traditional 2-level output space mapping algorithm |

17 | FRATILA Radu, BENABOU Abdelkader, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, MIPO Jean-Claude "A Combined Experimental and Finite Element Analysis Method for the Estimation of Eddy-Current Loss in NdFeB Magnets" Sensors, Vol. 14, N°. 5, p. 8505-8512, 5, url, NdFeB permanent magnets (PMs) are widely used in high performance electrical machines, but their relatively high conductivity subjects them to eddy current losses that can lead to magnetization loss. The Finite Element (FE) method is generally used to quantify the eddy current loss of PMs, but it remains quite difficult to validate the accuracy of the results with complex devices. In this paper, an experimental test device is used in order to extract the eddy current losses that are then compared with those of a 3D FE model. |

18 | CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, TITTARELLI Roberta "Space-time residual-based a posteriori estimators for the A−φ magnetodynamic formulation of the Maxwell system." Comput. Methods Appl. Math., Vol. 14, N°. 4, p. 429--460, 5, url, In this paper, an a posteriori residual error estimator is proposed for the A−ϕ magnetodynamic Maxwell system given in its potential and space/time formulation and solved by a finite element method. The reliability as well as the efficiency of the estimator are established for several norms. Then, numerical tests are performed, allowing to illustrate the obtained theoretical results. |

19 | ABULIZI Maimaitrireyimu, PENG Ling, LI Yongdong, FRANCOIS Bruno "Performance analysis of a controller for doubly-fed induction generators based wind turbines against parameter variations" International review of Electrical Engineering (IREEE), Vol. 9, N°. 2, p. 262 - 269, 4 |

20 | GONG Jinlin, ASLAN Bassel, SEMAIL Eric, GILLON Frédéric "High Speed Functionality Optimization of Five-Phase Machine Using 3rd Harmonic Current" COMPEL, Vol. 33, N°. 3, p. 14, 4, url, Some surrogate-assisted optimization techniques are applied in order to improve the performances of a 5-phase Permanent Magnet (PM) machine in the context of a complex model requiring computation time. An optimal control of four independent currents is proposed in order to minimize the total losses with the respect of functioning constraints. Moreover, some geometrical parameters are added to the optimization process allowing a co-design between control and dimensioning. The effectiveness of the method allows solving the challenge which consists in taking into account inside the control strategy the eddy-current losses in magnets and iron. In fact, magnet losses are a critical point to protect the machine from demagnetization in flux-weakening region. But these losses, which highly depend on magnetic state of the machine, must be calculated by Finite Element Method (FEM) to be accurate. The FEM has the drawback to be time consuming. It is why, a direct optimization using FEM is critical. The response surface method (RSM) and the Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) algorithm consist in approximating the FEM by a surrogate model used directly or indirectly in the optimization process. The optimal results proved the interest of the both methods in this context |

21 | M’BOUNGUI Gaston, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, GIRAUD Frédéric "Vibration Control and Preliminary evaluation of a piezo-electric actuator for use as a force-feedback device" European Journal on Electrical Engineering, Vol. 17, N°. 1/2, p. 9-26, 4 |

22 | AMDOUNI Imen, EL AMRAOUI Lilia, GILLON Frédéric, BENREJEB Mohamed, BROCHET Pascal "Multiobjective approach developed for optimizing the dynamic behavior of incremental linear actuators" COMPEL, Vol. 33, N°. 3, p. 953-964, 4, url, Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop an optimal approach for optimizing the dynamic behavior of incremental linear actuators. Design/methodology/approach – First, a parameterized design model is built. Second, a dynamic model is implemented. This model takes into account the thrust force computed from a finite element model. Finally, the multiobjective optimization approach is applied to the dynamic model to optimize control as well as design parameters. Findings – The Pareto front resulting from the optimization approach (or the parallel optimization approach,) is better than the Pareto, which is obtained from the only application of MultiObjective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) method (or parallel MOGA with the same number of optimization approach objective function evaluations). The only use of MOGA can reach the region near an optimal Pareto front, but it consumes more computing time than the multiobjective optimization approach. At each flowchart stage, parallelization leads to a significant reduction of computing time which is halved when using two-core machine. Originality/value – In order to solve the multiobjective problem, a hybrid algorithm based on MOGA is developed |

23 | BERBECEA Alexandru Claudiu, GILLON Frédéric, BROCHET Pascal "Multi-level design of an isolation transformer using collaborative optimization" COMPEL, Vol. 33, N°. 3, p. 1038-1050, 4, url, Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present an application of a multidisciplinary multi-level design optimization methodology for the optimal design of a complex device from the field of electrical engineering throughout discipline-based decomposition. The considered benchmark is a single-phase low voltage safety isolation transformer. Design/methodology/approach – The multidisciplinary optimization of a safety isolation transformer is addressed within this paper. The bi-level collaborative optimization (CO) strategy is employed to coordinate the optimization of the different disciplinary analytical models of the transformer (no-load and full-load electromagnetic models and thermal model). The results represent the joint decision of the three distinct disciplinary optimizers involved in the design process, under the coordination of the CO’s master optimizer. In order to validate the proposed approach, the results are compared to those obtained using a classical single-level optimization method – sequential quadratic programming – carried out using a multidisciplinary feasible formulation for handling the evaluation of the coupling model of the transformer. Findings – Results show a good convergence of the CO process with the analytical modeling of the transformer, with a reduced number of coordination iterations. However, a relatively important number of disciplinary models evaluations were required by the local optimizers. Originality/value – The CO multi-level methodology represents a new approach in the field of electrical engineering. The advantage of this approach consists in that it integrates decisions from different teams of specialists within the optimal design process of complex systems and all exchanges are managed within a unique coordination process. |

24 | MAYET Clément, POUGET Julien, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter "Influence of an energy storage system on the energy consumption of a diesel-electric locomotive" IEEE Transactions on vehicular technology, Vol. 63, N°. 3, p. 1032-1040, 3, This paper studies the influence of an Energy Storage System (ESS) on the fuel consumption of a diesel-electric locomotive. First, an energetic model of a diesel-electric locomotive is established using Energetic Macroscopic Representation. An inversion-based control is deduced, and the model is validated by experimental results on a real locomotive. Secondly, from this validated model, a battery/supercapacitor ESS is added in simulation in order to study the benefit of the hybridization before integration on the real vehicle. The simulations show that a simple energy management based on a frequency approach allows the reduction of 25% the fuel consumption on a real drive cycle. |

25 | ASLAN Bassel, SEMAIL Eric, LEGRANGER Jérome "General Analytical Model of Magnet Average Eddy-Current Volume Losses for Comparison of Multi-phase PM Machines with Concentrated Winding" IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 29, N°. 1, p. 11, 3, url, this paper studies magnet eddy-current losses in permanent magnet (PM) machines with concentrated winding. First of all, space harmonics of magnetomotive force (MMF) and their influence on magnet losses in electrical machines are investigated. Secondly, analytical model of magnet volume losses is developed by studying the interaction between MMF harmonics wavelengths and magnet pole dimensions. Different cases of this interaction are exhibited according to the ratio between each harmonic wavelength and magnet pole width. Then various losses sub-models are deduced. Using this analytical model, magnet volume losses for many Slots/Poles combinations of 3, 5, and 7 phase machines with concentrated winding are compared. This comparison leads to classify combinations into different families depending on their magnet losses level. Finally, in order to verify the theoretical study, Finite Element models are built and simulation results are compared with analytical calculations. |

26 | ABBES Dhaker, MARTINEZ A, CHAMPENOIS G, ROBYNS Benoît "Real time supervision for a hybrid renewable power system emulator" Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, Elsevier, Vol. 42, p. 53-72, 3, This paper is focused on the design and the implementation of a hybrid PV-wind power system with batteries. It aims to emulate the behavior of a hybrid power system in order to face load consumption variations. Final system includes relevant contributions such as quality of emulator (a large number of parameters are considered); capacity to study various impacts simultaneously, a fast dynamic and a set of experimental tests that have been achieved and validated with a test bench. Moreover, a relevant supervision strategy based on currents control and batteries State Of Charge (SOC) estimation has been successfully performed despite simplicity of converter controls. |

27 | HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Model Order Reduction of Non-Linear Magnetostatic Problems Based on POD and DEI Methods" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 2 |

28 | MAYET Clément, HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, VERHILLE Jean-Noël, CHATTOT Eric, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty "Comparison of different models and simulation approaches for the energetic study of a subway" IEEE Transactions on vehicular technology, Vol. 63, N°. 2, p. 556-565, 2, This paper aims to compare different models and simulation approaches for an energetic simulation of an automatic subway. For this purpose, several models are carried out from a dynamic model which is validated by comparison with experimental measurements. Furthermore, two different simulation approaches are compared: backward and forward approaches. A simplified model is obtained and allows the reduction of the simulation time by 96 compared to the dynamic model by keeping an accuracy of more than 99 %. |

29 | DULAR Patrick, TANG Zuqi, LE MENACH Yvonnick, CREUSE Emmanuel, PIRIOU Francis "Comparison of Residual and Hierarchical Finite Element Error Estimators in Eddy Current Problems" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 50, N°. 2, p. 501-504, 2, url, The finite element computation of eddy current problems introduces numerical error. This error can only be estimated. Among all error estimators (EEs) already developed, two estimators, called residual and hierarchical EEs, proven to be reliable and efficient, are theoretically and numerically compared. Both estimators show similar behaviors and locations of the error. |

30 | HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Model order reduction applied to the numerical study of electrical motor based on POD method taking into account rotation movement " International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields, 2 |

31 | MAC Duy Hung, CLENET Stéphane "A Posteriori Error Estimation for Stochastic Static Problems" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 50, N°. 2, 2 |

32 | BUENO Marie-Ange, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, AMBERG Michel, GIRAUD Frédéric "A simulation from a tactile device to render the touch of textile fabrics: a preliminary study on velvet" Textile Research Journal, Vol. 84, N°. 13, p. 1428-1440, 2, url, In the field of e-commerce or virtual prototyping of textile fabrics and garments, tactile stimulators could be very pertinent and useful tools for the industry. The challenge is to stimulate the human hand using a tactile device in order to simulate the textile fabric touch. The principle of the tactile device is described. The kinds of fabrics investigated are pile fabrics, such as velvet. In this study, the illusion of pile is given when touching the smooth plate of the tactile device by modulating the coefficient of friction between the plate and the finger during an active movement. The control signal is qualitatively designed from some tribological features identified in this study as velvet fabric characteristics. The influence of each tribological feature on the tactile rendering is studied via psychophysical studies comparing real and simulated fabrics. The best rendering needs a simulation with three specific features: a coefficient of friction, which depends on the finger movement direction; a transition phase for the change of movement direction; and small amplitude variations of the coefficient of friction with about one millimeter wavelength. |

33 | PIERQUIN Antoine, BRISSET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Benefits of Waveform Relaxation Method and Output Space Mapping for the Optimization of Multirate Systems" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 50, N°. 2, p. 653-656, 2, We present an optimization problem that requires the modeling of a multirate system composed of subsystems with different time constants. We use waveform relaxation method (WRM) in order to simulate such a system, but computation time can be penalizing in an optimization context. Thus, we apply output space mapping (OSM) that uses several models of the system to accelerate optimization. WRM is one of the models used in OSM. |

34 | KAMAL Elkhatib, AITOUCHE Abdel, ABBES Dhaker "Robust Fuzzy Scheduler Fault Tolerant Control of Wind Energy Systems Subject to Sensor and Actuator Faults" International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 55, p. 402-419, 2, url, In this paper, new robust fuzzy scheduler fault tolerant control is proposed to tackle multivariable nonlinear systems subject to sensor faults, actuator faults and parameter uncertainties. Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy model is employed to represent the nonlinear wind energy systems, and then a model-based fuzzy scheduler controller design use the concept of general-distributed compensation. Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy systems are classified into three families based on the input matrices and a fault tolerant control synthesis procedure is given for each family. In each family, sufficient conditions are derived for robust stabilization, in the sense of Lyapunov method and Taylor series stability, for the Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy system with parametric uncertainties, sensor faults, and actuator faults. The sufficient conditions are formulated in the format of linear matrix inequalities. The effectiveness of the proposed controller design methodology is finally demonstrated through a wind energy system with doubly fed induction generators to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. |

35 | FRATILA Mircea, BENABOU Abdelkader, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, DESSOUDE Maxime "Calculation of iron loss in Solid Rotor Induction Machine using FEM" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 50, N°. 2, 2 |

36 | CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, TANG Zuqi "Helmholtz decomposition of vector fields with mixed boundary conditions and an application to a posteriori finite element error analysis of the Maxwell system" Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences, Vol. 38, N°. 4, p. 738--750, 2, url, This paper is devoted to the derivation of a Helmholtz decomposition of vector fields in the case ofmixed boundary conditions imposed on the boundary of the domain. This particular decomposition allows to obtain a residual a posteriori error estimator for the approximation ofmagnetostatic problems given in the so-called A-formulation, for which the reliability can be established. Numerical tests confirm the obtained theoretical predictions. |

37 | WANG Zifu, TANG Zuqi, HENNERON Thomas, PIRIOU Francis, MIPO Jean-Claude "Energetic Galerkin Projection of Electromagnetic Fields Between Different Meshes" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 50, N°. 2, p. 613-616, 2, url, Mesh-to-mesh field transfer arises frequently in finite element computations. Typical applications may concern remeshing, multigrid methods, domain decomposition and multi-physics problems. For electromagnetic fields, one of the essential constraints in such transfers is to conserve energetic quantities such as the magnetic energy and the joule heating. Within the framework of Galerkin projection on overlapping domains, we introduce the definition of energetic norms for electromagnetic fields. The corresponding formulations we propose, provide energy-conserving projection of electromagnetic fields between different meshes. |

38 | NGUYEN Thanh Hung, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, ABBA Gabriel, BIGOT Régis "Modeling of Forging Processes Assisted by Piezoelectric Actuators: Principles and Experimental Validation" IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 50, N°. 1, p. 244-252, 1, This paper presents the modeling of forging processes assisted by vibrations. A piezoelectric actuator is used to generate speciﬁc low-frequency vibration waveforms superimposed to the forging motion. Experimental results show a reduction of the forging load during upsetting tests. However, the appropriate waveforms and their inﬂuence on the forging load are still poorly understood. Moreover, the requirements of actuators and the design of the control should be known in advance. Therefore, there is a need for simulation to predict those issues. Due to the complexity of the interactions between the different components of the system, a complete model of the process is proposed. It is developed using an energetic macroscopic representation to preserve causality throughout themodeling. Simulation results are then compared with representative experimental results. |

39 | GIRAUD Frédéric, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, AMBERG Michel, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty " Vector control method applied to a traveling wave in a finite beam" IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, ferroelectricity and Frequency Control (TUFFC), Vol. 61, N°. 1, p. 147-158, 1, url, This paper presents the closed-loop control of exciters to produce a traveling wave in a finite beam. This control is based on a dynamical modeling of the system established in a rotating reference frame. This method allows dynamic and independent control of the phase and amplitude of two vibration modes. The condition to obtain the traveling wave is written in this rotating frame, and requires having two vibration modes with the same amplitude, and imposing a phase shift of 90?? between them. The advantage of the method is that it allows easy implementation of a closed loop control that can handle parameter drift of the system, after a temperature rise, for example. The modeling is compared with measurement on an experimental test bench which also implements real-time control. We managed to experimentally obtain a settling time of 250 ms for the traveling wave, and a standing wave ratio (SWR) of 1.3. |

40 | VINOT Emmanuel, TRIGUI Rochdi, CHENG Yuan, ESPANET Christophe, BOUSCAYROL Alain "Improvement of an EVT-based HEV using dynamic programming" IEEE transactions on Vehicular Technology , Vol. 63, N°. 1, p. 40-49, 1 |

41 | MAC Duy Hung, CLENET Stéphane, BEDDEK Karim, CHEVALLIER Loïc, KORECKI Julien "Influence of uncertainties on the B(H) curves on the flux linkage of a turboalternator" International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields, Vol. 27, N°. 3, p. 385-399, 1, url, In this paper, we analyze the influence of the uncertainties on the behavior constitutive laws of ferromagnetic materials on the behavior of a turboalternator. A simple stochastic model of anhysteretic nonlinear B(H) curve is proposed for the ferromagnetic yokes of the stator and the rotor. The B(H) curve is defined by five random parameters. We quantify the influence of the variability of these five parameters on the flux linkage of one phase of the stator winding depending on the excitation current I. The influence of each parameter is analyzed via the Sobol indices. With this analysis, we can determine the most influential parameters for each state of magnetization (according to the level of I) and investigate where the characterization process of the B(H) curve should focus to improve the accuracy of the computed flux linkage. |

42 | SAAD Hani, GUILLAUD Xavier, MAHSEREDJIAN Jean, DENNETIERE Sébastien "MMC Capacitor Voltage Decoupling and Balancing Controls " IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 30, N°. 2, p. 704 - 712, 1, A modular multilevel converter control system, based on converter energy storage, is proposed in this paper for two different control modes: active power and dc voltage. The proposed control system decouples the submodule (SM) capacitor voltages from the dc bus voltage. One of the practical applications is the management of active redundant SMs. A practical HVDC system with 401-level MMCs, including 10% redundancy in MMC SMs, is used for validating and demonstrating the advantages of the proposed control system. This paper also presents a novel capacitor voltage balancing control based on max – min functions. It is used to drastically reduce the number of switchings for each SM and enhances computational efficiency. |

1 | WANG Zifu, HENNERON Thomas, DULAR Patrick, MIPO Jean-Claude, PIRIOU Francis "Comparison of Implementation Techniques for Galerkin Projection Between Different Meshes" Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields, 12, To solve multi-physics problems, weak coupling of finite element calculations can be carried out: the subproblems of which the physical nature differs, are solved separately on their own meshes. In this case, Galerkin projection provides useful tool to ensure the transfer of physical fields between different meshes. In terms of implementation, the Galerkin projection system can be either accurately assembled over the intersection of two meshes or approximately integrated over the target mesh. This paper describes and compares these two implementation techniques for the Galerkin projection. |

2 | SARABI Siyamak, KEFSI Laid, MERDASSI Asma, ROBYNS Benoît "Supervision of Plug-in Electric Vehicles connected to the Electric Distribution Grids" International Journal of Electrical Energy, Vol. 1, N°. 4, p. 256-263, ISBN ISSN 2301-3656, 12, url, In recent years, automobile industries focus on the electrification and hybridization of the vehicle’s production. The number of Plug in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) are significantly increasing through the next years. These raises impose negative impacts on the electrical power grids. In this study, a supervision system is proposed with the aim of reducing the power losses and voltage profile improvement, thanks to a dynamic programming optimization algorithm. V2G (Vehicle to Grid) technology is introduced as benefits of vehicle electrification for electrical distribution grids. |

3 | TANG Zuqi, LE MENACH Yvonnick, CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, PIRIOU Francis "Residual and equilibrated error estimators for magnetostatic problems solved by finite element method" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 49, N°. 12, p. 5715 - 5723, 12, url, In finite element computations, the choice of the mesh is crucial to obtain accurate solutions. In order to evaluate the quality of the mesh, a posteriori error estimators can be used. In this paper, we develop residual-based error estimators for magnetostatic problems with both classical formulations in term of potentials used, as well as the equilibrated error estimator. We compare their behaviors on some numerical applications, to understand the interest of each of them in the remeshing process. |

4 | LI Ke, VIDET Arnaud, IDIR Nadir "Multi-Probe Measurement Method for Voltage-Dependent Capacitances of Power Semiconductor Devices in High Voltage" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 28, N°. 11, p. 5414-5422, 11, url, The characterization of voltage-dependent capacitances of power semiconductor devices (diode, MOSFET, IGBT etc.) is very important for modeling their dynamic performances. A measurement method using two current probes has been developed to characterize inter-electrode capacitances of power devices while isolating the measurement devices from the high-voltage DC bias power source. Ciss and Coss are shown to be accurately measured while Crss is not convincing enough. Then an additional current probe is added to improve the method. Crss is shown to be well characterized by this three-current-probe method. This method has been validated using various technologies of semiconductor devices including silicon MOSFET and silicon carbide JFET. The inter-electrode capacitances of power devices can be safely and accurately measured with this multi-probe method even in high voltage. |

5 | RAMAROTAFIKA Rindra, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane "Stochastic Jiles-Atherton model accounting for soft magnetic material variability" The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 32, N°. 5, p. 1679 - 1691, 10, Classically the magnetic material models are considered with a deterministic approach. Nevertheless, when submitted to the fabrication process, the magnetic core properties are negatively impacted and may be subject to variability during the process. This variability can be of such importance that the performances of the final device (electrical machine) will also present a noticeable variability. The aim of this research is to develop a stochastic model of the magnetic behaviour law of slinky stators used in claw pole generators. The proposed methodology is general and can be applied to other physical properties of electrical devices. |

6 | ZENG Tao, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, GIRAUD Frédéric, AMBERG Michel "Contribution of Slip Cue to Curvature Perception through Active and Dynamic Touch" IEEE Transactions on Haptics, Vol. 6, N°. 4, p. 408-416, 10, —Haptic perception of curvature depends largely on the kind of touch. An active and dynamic touch is considered to be the most natural way of exploring. In this study, we have designed and evaluated a kinematic platform for curvature perception through active and dynamic touch. This platform can independently orient, elevate, and translate a flat plate; by exploring forward and backward along the flat plate with a finger, users can achieve curvature feeling of extruded objects. The mechanism of platform and the way of touch have maximally respected the cues for curvature perception, especially the slip cue. Psychophysical evaluation demonstrated that the discrimination threshold of curvature for virtual shapes is close to that for real shapes, and the virtual shape is felt equally curved as the real one. The curvature perception of mono-convex surfaces was then expanded to perception of more complex surfaces: large textures, which have a sinusoidal profile. The evaluation has accessed the correspondence between the virtual and real large textures. |

7 | HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Model order reduction of quasi-static problems based on POD and PGD approaches" EPJ AP, Vol. 64, N°. 2, 10 |

8 | LETROUVE Tony, LHOMME Walter, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DOLLINGER Nicolas "Control validation of Peugeot 3∞8 Hybrid4 vehicle using a reduced-scale power HIL simulation" Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, Vol. 8, N°. 5, p. 1227-1233, 9, (common paper of L2EP Lille, and PSA Peugeot Citroën within MEGEVH, French network on HEVs, extended version of the Award Paper Prize of IEEE-VPPC 2012) The new engineering challenges lead to a control of a vehicle more and more complex. To tackle this issue, Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation is used in the development of real-time embedded systems. In this paper, the control of a double parallel hybrid vehicle is validated using a reduced power HIL simulation. A graphical description is used in order to organize the emulation and control. Some experimental results of a versatile testbed are given for the Peugeot 3∞8 HYbrid4. |

9 | ALLEGRE Anne-Laure, BOUSCAYROL Alain, TRIGUI Rochdi "Flexible real-time control of an Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles" IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, Vol. 3, N°. 3, p. 79-85, 9 |

10 | CAMBLONG Haritza, VECHIU Ionel, GUILLAUD Xavier, ETXEBERRIA A, KRECKELBERGH S "Wind turbine controller comparison on an island grid in terms of frequency control and mechanical stress" Renewable Energy, Vol. 63, p. 37-45, 9, The aim of this paper is to present a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller designed with two main objectives: to allow the contribution of wind turbines (WTs) to the primary frequency regulation of an island power system, and to reduce the WTs drive-train mechanical stresses. The designed LQG1_CPC_Track controller is compared, in terms of the mentioned objectives, to a more classical controller containing two uncoupled control loops. The comparison is carried out in a simulation model of the Guadeloupian island power system taken as a case study. The model is implemented in Eurostag software. Simulation results show that the contribution of both controllers to the primary frequency regulation is satisfactory, and that the LQG1_CPC_Track allows reducing drive-train mechanical stresses significantly. Thus, thanks to the LQG1_Track, on top of allowing the integration of more wind energy in the grid with the contribution to primary frequency regulation, WTs would have less maintenance costs and could be manufactured with cheaper material. |

11 | BRACIKOWSKI Nicolas, ROSSI Mathieu, HECQUET Michel, GILLON Frédéric "Multi-physics design rules using lumped models for a permanent magnet synchronous machine" International journal of applied electromagnetics and mechanics, IJAEM,, Vol. 43, N°. 1, 9 |

12 | CHENG Yuan, BOUSCAYROL Alain, TRIGUI Rochdi, ESPANET Christophe, CUI Shumei "Field weakening control of a PM electric variable transmission for HEV" Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, Vol. 8, N°. 5, p. 1096-1106, 9, Automotive engineers and researchers have proposed different topologies for series–parallel hybrid electric vehicles (SP-HEVs). The Toyota Hybrid System (THS) is the best known SP-HEV-based vehicle, but alternative solutions, such as electric variable transmission (EVT), have been also proposed. An efficient comparison between these different solutions is a key point to estimate the added value of each topology. This paper presents the application of optimal control to two series–parallel hybrid architectures for efficiency assessment purposes. The dynamic programming method is applied to the THS and to a virtual hybrid vehicle with an EVT. The way to take into account the supplementary degree of freedom provided by the decoupling of the wheels and the engine in both topologies is presented. The optimal fuel consumption is then compared on different driving cycles and brings out an overconsumption of the EVT topology. Then, a parametric study shows that inserting an appropriate gear ratio on the internal-combustion-engine (ICE) shaft can improve the EVT efficiency that becomes close to the THS efficiency. |

13 | WANG Ye, DELILLE Gauthier, BAYEM Herman, GUILLAUD Xavier, FRANCOIS Bruno "High Wind Power Penetration in Isolated Power Systems—Assessment of Wind Inertial and Primary Frequency Responses" IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 28, N°. 3, p. 2412-2420, 8, Grid operational challenges are significant to increase securely the wind penetration level. New embedded control functions are therefore required in order to make participate wind generators in power system management. In this paper the implementation of inertial response and primary frequency control in a wind turbine controller are investigated. Main factors affecting the performances of the frequency regulation are identified and characterized. The influence of control parameters and the turbine operating point on the inertial response are analyzed through obtained performances in an islanded power system. The combined control scheme using both controllers is also developed and the potential of the obtained grid service at partial load is discussed. |

14 | RAMAROTAFIKA Rindra, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane "Stochastic modeling of anhysteretic magnetic curve using random inter-dependant coefficients" International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), Vol. 43, N°. 1-2, p. 151-159, 7, url, When modeling a system subject to uncertainties, a fundamental aspect is the stochastic modeling of the input parameters of the model. Several calculation and analysis steps have to be considered, and can be found in the literature. In this paper, after presenting such steps, these are applied for the modeling of the variability of the magnetic behavior law related to a set of slinky stator samples, issued from the same production chain. The probabilistic model of the parameters is therefore validated using a statistical test and a classical Monte Carlo simulation. The importance of taking account of the dependency structure between the parameters is then emphasized, as it may modify significantly the results related to the validation of the model. |

15 | FRATILA Mircea, BENABOU Abdelkader, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, DESSOUDE Maxime "Improved iron loss calculation for non-centered minor loops" The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 32, N°. 4, 7 |

16 | FRATILA Mircea, RAMAROTAFIKA Rindra, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm "Stochastic post processing calculation of iron losses -Application to a PMSM" The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 32, N°. 4, 7 |

17 | GIRAUD Frédéric, AMBERG Michel, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty "Design and Control of a Haptic Knob" Sensors and Actuators - Physical, Vol. 196, p. 78-85, 7, url, Introducing haptic into tactile input interfaces allow users to really feel their action on the device they control by this way. In this paper, we achieve tactile stimulation by using the squeeze film effect. It is applied on a haptic knob, as those which control an MP3 player for example. We present our design procedure of the active surface and of the position sensor based on force measurement which achieves a resolution of 3.6 deg. We also show that stimuli are damped by fingertip, and a specific control loop with a response time of 2.5 ms has been achieved to tackle this problem. Finally, a psychophysical experiment was conducted showing how the haptic feedback can increase user’s accuracy in a pointing task. |

18 | TANG Zuqi, LE MENACH Yvonnick, CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, PIRIOU Francis "A posteriori error estimator for harmonic A-Phi formulation" The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, Vol. 32, N°. 4, p. 1219 - 1229, 7, url |

19 | ABDELLI Radia, REKIOUA Djamila, REKIOUA Toufik, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm "Improved direct torque control of an induction generator in a wind conversion system connected to the grid" ISA Transactions, Vol. 52, N°. 4, p. 525-538, 7 |

20 | TARDIVEAU Rémi, GIRAUD Frédéric, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, AMBERG Michel, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty "Power Consideration in a Piezoelectric Generator" Smart Materials Research, Vol. 2013, 6, url, A piezoelectric generator converts mechanical energy into electricity and is used in energy harvesting devices. In this paper, synchronisation conditions in regard to the excitation vibration are studied. We show that a phase shift of ninety degrees between the vibration excitation and the bender’s displacement provides the maximum power from the mechanical excitation. However, the piezoelectric material is prone to power losses; hence the bender’s displacement amplitude is optimised in order to increase the amount of power which is converted into electricity. In the paper, we use active energy harvesting to control the power flow, and all the results are achieved at a frequency of 200 Hz which is well below the generator’s resonant frequency. |

21 | MKADDEM Ali, BENABOU Abdelkader, EL MANSORI Mohamed, CLENET Stéphane "Analytical modeling to predict the cutting behavior of ferromagnetic steels: A coupled magnetic–mechanical approach" International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 50, N°. 13, p. 2078-2086, 6 |

22 | ROBYNS Benoît, DAVIGNY Arnaud, SAUDEMONT Christophe "Methodologies for supervision of hybrid energy sources based on storage systems – A survey" Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Elsevier, Vol. 91, p. 52-71, 5, Hybrid Energy Sources based on Storage Systems (HES) are increasingly used to improve the grid integration of renewable energy generators, or to improve the energy efficiency and the reliability of transport systems. This paper proposes a survey on the methodologies to design fuzzy logic based supervision strategies of this new kind of energy generating systems. Different ways to manage energy storage system are particularly discussed. A graphical modeling tool is used to facilitate the analysis and the determination of fuzzy control algorithms adapted to complex hybrid systems. The methodology is divided in different steps covering the design of a supervisor from the system work specifications to an optimized implementation of the control. An Experimental Design Methodology (EDM) combined with optimization algorithms is used to tune a set of parameters suitable for a fuzzy supervisor in order to optimize power, energy, efficiency, voltage quality, economic or environmental indicators. The application of this methodology to the supervision of different topologies of HES, based on renewable energy in a grid or in building applications or dedicated to transport systems, illustrates the performance and the systematic dimension of the approach. |

23 | GRUSON François, LE MOIGNE Philippe, DELARUE Philippe, VIDET Arnaud, CIMETIERE Xavier "A Simple Carrier-Based Modulation for the SVM of the Matrix Converter" IEEE Transactions Industrial Informatics, Vol. 9, N°. 2, p. 947-956, 5, Today, industry has not fully embraced the matrix converter solution. One important reason is its high control complexity. It is therefore relevant to propose a simpler but efficient modulation scheme, similar as three phase VSI modulators with the well-known symmetrical carrier-based ones. The modulation presented in this paper is equivalent to a particular Space Vector Modulation (SVM) and takes into account harmonics and unbalanced input voltages, with the same maximum voltage transfer ratio (86%). The aim of this work is to propose a simple and general pulse-width-modulation method using carrier-based modulator for an easier matrix converter control. Furthermore, a simple duty cycle calculation method is used, based on a virtual matrix converter. Finally, simulations and experimentations are presented to validate this simple, original and efficient modulation concept equivalent to matrix converter SVM. |

24 | BEDDEK Karim, CLENET Stéphane, MOREAU Olivier, LE MENACH Yvonnick "Solution of large stochastic finite element problem – application to ECT-NDT" IEEE Trans. on. Mag,, Vol. 49, N°. 5, p. 1605-1608, 5 |

25 | MAC Duy Hung, CLENET Stéphane, MIPO Jean-Claude, TSUKERMAN Igor "A priori error estimator in the transformation method taking into account the geometric uncertainties" IEEE Trans. on Mag, Vol. 49, N°. 5, p. 1597-1600, 5 |

26 | THOMAS Pierre, LE MENACH Yvonnick "An Arbitrary Thick Shell Finite Element for Eddy-Current Dual Vector-Scalar Potential Formulations" IEEE Trans. Mag, Vol. 49, N°. 5, p. 1725-1728, 5 |

27 | RODRIGUES A. Wendell de O., CHEVALLIER Loïc, LE MENACH Yvonnick, GUYOMARC’H Frédéric "Test Harness on a Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Solver on GPUs: An Efficiency Analysis" IEEE Trans. Mag, Vol. 49, N°. 5, p. 1729-1732, 5 |

28 | MOREAU Olivier, BEDDEK Karim, CLENET Stéphane, LE MENACH Yvonnick "Stochastic NonDestructive Testing simulation: sensitivity analysis applied to material properties for tube support plate clogging in nuclear power plant steam generator" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 49, N°. 9, p. 1873-1876, 5 |

29 | TANG Zuqi, LE MENACH Yvonnick, CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, PIRIOU Francis "Residual based a posteriori error estimators for harmonic A/Phi and T/Omega formulations in eddy current problems" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 49, N°. 5, 5, url |

30 | BREBAN Stefan, SAUDEMONT Christophe, VIEILLARD S, ROBYNS Benoît "Experimental design and genetic algorithm optimization of a fuzzy logic supervisor for embedded electrical power systems" Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Elsevier, Vol. 91, p. 91-107, 5, The embedded power systems are nowadays developing at high pace. Hybrid-electric vehicles, full- electric vehicles, airplanes, ships, high-speed trains, all share a common point – the embedded electrical power system. This paper aims to present an optimization methodology of a fuzzy-logic supervision strategy. The optimization objectives are to minimize the DC-link voltage variations, and to increase the system efficiency by reducing the dissipated power. For that, a methodology involving the experimental design and genetic algorithm will be presented. The simulation and experimental results are validating the proposed procedure. |

31 | WANG Zifu, HENNERON Thomas, NEMITZ Nicolas, MIPO Jean-Claude, PIRIOU Francis "Electromagnetic Field Projection on Finite Element Overlapping Domains" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 49, N°. 4, p. 1290-1298, 4, Coupled problems are made up of subproblems of which the physical nature differs. Using indirect coupling models, the subproblems are calculated separately on their own meshes to ensure precision. To obtain a precise solution for the total problem, it is important to ensure the transmission of information between the subproblems. In this paper, we present field projection methods on overlapping domains. In comparison to earlier works, the classical $L^{2}$ or $mathbf{L}^{2}$ projection theory is extended to $H(mathbf{grad})$, $mathbf{H}(mathbf{curl})$ and $mathbf{H}(div)$ to obtain increased projection accuracy for the distributional derivatives. A Petrov-Galerkin method is then presented to fill the test space using a bi-orthogonal basis, without losing the optimality of the result in comparison to the $L^{2}$ or $mathbf{L}^{2}$ Ritz-Galerkin method. Using the Petrov-Galerkin method and bi-orthogonal test functions, the projection is presented using a diagonal matrix. However, in the standard Ritz-Galerkin projections, a linear system must be solved. |

32 | TAN Wenhua, CUELLAR Carlos, MARGUERON Xavier, IDIR Nadir "A High Frequency Equivalent Circuit and Parameter Extraction Procedure for Common Mode Choke in EMI Filter" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 28, N°. 3, p. 1157-1166, 3, url, Power converters with high switching frequency generate conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise. EMI filters are thus widely used to reduce these conducted noises for the compliance with electromagnetic compatibility standards. In this paper, a high-frequency (HF) equivalent circuit model for common mode (CM) chokes used in EMI filters is proposed together with its parameter extraction procedure. This procedure is based on impedance measurements and it incorporates an iterative rational function approximation fitting algorithm to extract the parameters in the model. The proposed model and procedure is applied to a planar CM choke which is used to realize an EMI filter. The simulated results of the filter show good agreement with the experimental ones. This extraction procedure is quite general and it can also be extended to identify the HF model of other passive components. |

33 | GARCIAHERREROS Ivan Mauricio, KESTELYN Xavier, GOMAND Julien, COLEMAN Ralph, BARRE Pierre-Jean "Model-based decoupling control method for dual-drive gantry stages: A case study with experimental validations" Control Engineering Practice, Vol. 21, N°. 3, p. pp. 298-307, 3, url, Industrial motion control of dual–drive gantry stages is usually performed by position controllers acting independently on each actuator. This approach neglects the unbalance and the mechanical coupling between actuators, leading to poor positioning performances. To overcome this drawback, a model–based decoupling control is proposed. Initially, a dynamic model of the gantry stage is proposed. Once identified and validated, such model is written in terms of a decoupling basis. Then, by model inversion, a feedbackfeedforward decoupling control is presented. Experimental results show that, in comparison to the independent axis control approach, the proposed solution leads to improved motion control. |

34 | SANDULESCU Alexandru-Paul, MEINGUET Fabien, KESTELYN Xavier, SEMAIL Eric, BRUYERE Antoine "Flux-weakening operation of open-end winding drive integrating a cost effective high-power charger " IET - Electrical Systems in Transportation, Vol. 3, N°. 1, p. 10 - 21, ISBN 2042-9738, 3, url, In this study, a three-phase drive with a six-leg voltage source inverter and an open-end winding interior permanent magnet synchronous machine designed for traction of an electric vehicle is studied in a ﬂux-weakening operation. The topology allows the functionality of a high-power charger to be obtained, without adding any other supplementary power devices. On the other hand, since there are three independent currents, the control structure has to handle not only the two dq-current components but also a zero-sequence current. If neglected, in comparison with a wye-coupled three-phase drive, this zero-sequence component can cause a higher maximum peak value of the phase currents, additional stator Joule losses, torque ripple, inverter voltage saturation and insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) oversizing. The proposed control strategy consists in adapting a conventional method used for wye-connected machines particularly in ﬂux-weakening operation. This strategy allows the closed-loop control of the zero-sequence current to be maintained in the whole speed range and therefore inverter saturation is avoided. Simulations and experimental results are presented and analysed. |

35 | MEINGUET Fabien, SANDULESCU Alexandru-Paul, KESTELYN Xavier, SEMAIL Eric "A Method for Fault Detection and Isolation based on the Processing of Multiple Diagnostic Indices: Application to Inverter Faults in AC Drives" IEEE Trans. on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 62, N°. 2, p. 995-1009, ISBN 10.1109/TVT.2012.2234157, 3, url, A general method for fault detection and isolation is proposed and applied to inverter faults in drives of electric vehicles. This method is based on a change-detection algorithm, which allows multiple fault indices to be combined for retrieving the most likely state of the drive. The considered drive topology is a six-leg inverter associated with a three-phase machine. Due to the inherent fault-tolerant topology, the conventional fault indices are no longer effective. Therefore, an analysis of simulations in faulty conditions leads to the derivation of suitable fault indices. These are based on the envelope of the phase currents as well as their instantaneous frequency. Specific operating conditions related to the electric vehicle environment are taken into account, such as the flux-weakening region and energy recovery. Finally, the performances of the fault detection and isolation scheme are evaluated under steady state and non-stationary conditions through simulations and experimental results. |

36 | TAN Wenhua, MARGUERON Xavier, IDIR Nadir "An Analytical Method for Modeling Parasitic Capacitances of Planar Components for EMI Filters" European Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 16, N°. 3/4, p. 425-445, 3, url, This paper presents an analytical method for calculating the parasitic capacitances of planar components with 3 dimensions. The calculation is based on the Electric Field Decomposition (EFD) between multi-conductors. 2D formulations used in micro-electronics have been extended to enable the applications on the cases of planar magnetic components. The 3D calculation is then based on an energy approach with the consideration of the magnetic core effects. Prototypes of inductors and coupled inductors allow the validation of this fully analytical approach. |

37 | CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, TANG Zuqi, LE MENACH Yvonnick, NEMITZ Nicolas, PIRIOU Francis "Residual-based a posteriori estimators for the T/Omega magnetodynamic harmonic formulation of the Maxwell system" International Journal of Numerical Analysis and Modeling, Vol. 10, N°. 2, p. 411-429, 2, url, In this paper, we focus on an a posteriori residual-based error estimator for the T/Omega magnetodynamic harmonic formulation of the Maxwell system. Similarly to the A/Phi formulation, the weak continuous and discrete formulations are established, and the well-posedness of both of them is addressed. Some useful analytical tools are derived. Among them, an ad-hoc Helmholtz decomposition for the T/Omega case is derived, which allows to pertinently split the error. Consequently, an a posteriori error estimator is obtained, which is proven to be reliable and locally efficient. Finally, numerical tests confirm the theoretical results. |

38 | BOULON Loïc, BOUSCAYROL Alain, HISSEL Daniel, PAPE Olivier, PERA Marie-Cécile "Inversion-based control of a highly redundant military HEV" IEEE transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 62, N°. 2, p. 500-510, 2, This paper deals with the control design of a military hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The studied vehicle presents a highly redundant architecture to ensure high system reliability. As a consequence, the control scheme is complex to design. Energetic macroscopic representation (EMR) is used to describe the interaction between all subsystems of the powertrain. A control structure is deduced by an inversion of the EMR of the vehicle powertrain. Simulation results demonstrate the ability of this inversion-based control to achieve military missions. |

39 | TAN Wenhua, CUELLAR Carlos, MARGUERON Xavier, IDIR Nadir "A Common Mode Choke Using Toroid-EQ Mixed Structure" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 28, N°. 1, p. 31-335, 1, url, Abstract--- Electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters are main solutions to suppress the conducted emissions from static power converters. For some years, integration techniques for EMI filters have been widely investigated to realize more compact systems. In this letter, a common mode (CM) choke with toroid-EQ mixed structure is presented. This structure is constituted of a toroidal CM choke embedded into an EQ core. The proposed toroid-EQ CM choke presents three-fold advantages. First, it effectively increases the leakage inductance of the toroidal CM choke and hence increases the DM inductance. Secondly, it reduces the parasitic coupling between the choke and the filter capacitors. Finally, the component can be easily fabricated with low cost. Experimental verifications have been carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed toroid-EQ CM choke. |