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Recherche, Développement et Innovation en Génie Electrique


"Dynamic model of Li-Ion Batteries Incorporating Electrothermal and Ageing Aspects For Electric Vehicle Applications"
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 12, url,
In this paper, a dynamic model of Li-ion batteries incorporating electrothermal and ageing aspects is proposed for electric vehicle applications. The main goal of the proposed model is to be both simple and sufficiently representative of the physical phenomena occurring in a battery cell. These two features allow for using this model as an evaluation tool of electric vehicle performances under different operational and environmental conditions. The developed model is based on an equivalent circuit diagram coupled with a thermal circuit and a semi-empirical ageing equation. Identification of parameters in the dynamic model is conducted by measurement tests in time-domain, which uses a hybrid Particle Swarm–Nelder–Mead optimization algorithm to achieve excellent prediction over the whole applicable current and state of charge ranges. The validation results show that the proposed model is able to simulate the dynamic interaction between the battery ageing and the thermal as well as electric behavior with sufficient accuracy in the range tested.
"Optimal Energy Management For a Li-Ion Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Incorporating NelderMead Simplex Approach"
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles, 12, url,
Combining a high power source like a supercapacitor with a Li-ion battery for electric vehicle applications results in good performance improvements, highly efficient, long lifetime, lightweight design and relatively modest cost of the overall source. A hybrid energy storage system controlled by a smart energy management strategy can play a key role in the design and development of multi-source electric vehicles. In this work, an optimal energy management strategy based on particle swarm optimization incorporating Nelder-Mead simplex method is proposed. The goal of the proposed strategy is to minimize the battery power stress and improves its lifetime. This is achieved by coupling a rule-based method based on the knowledge of the battery and supercapacitor efficiency operating with a hybrid Particle Swarm–Nelder–Mead (PSO–NM) optimization algorithm. This latter approach is proposed to optimize the control parameters of the rule-based energy management strategy, once the off-line optimization algorithm is over, the control method can be implemented on-line. The obtained results demonstrate significant lifetime enhancements for Li-Ion battery, an increase of up to 20% as compared to the mono-source based on regular single battery.
3FREYTES Julian, GILBERT Bergna, JON ARE Suul, SALVATORE D'Arco, GRUSON François, COLAS Frédéric, SAAD Hani, GUILLAUD Xavier
"Improved Small-Signal Stability of an MMC with CCSC by Control of the Internally Stored Energy"
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 11
"Sensitivity of predictive controllers to parameter variation in five-phase induction motor drives"
Control Engineering Practice, Vol. 68, p. 23-31, 11, url,
Model predictive control techniques have been recently proposed as a viable control alternative for power converters and electrical drives. The good current tracking, flexible control design or reduced switching losses are some of the benefits that explain the recently increased attention on finite-control-set model predictive control. The performance of the predictive model of the drive, which is the core of the predictive control, highly depends on the parameters of the real system. In this context, most research works assume good agreement between electrical parameters of the predictive model and the real machine, on the basis of nominal values. Nevertheless, this is far from being a real assumption, where non-modeled variables (i.e. the temperature, the magnetic saturation or the deep-bar effect) produce a detuning effect between the real system and its model, which can harm the control performance. The influence of parameter variations on the predictive control has barely been investigated in recent research works, where only conventional three-phase power converter configurations and permanent magnet drives have been taken into account. However, there is a lack of knowledge when different technologies like induction machines or multiphase drives are considered. It is worth highlighting the interest of the industry in induction motors as a mature technology or in multiphase drives as a promising alternative in applications where high overall system reliability and reduction in the total power per phase are required. This paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the impact of parameters mismatch on the finite-control-set predictive control performance of a five-phase induction motor drive, one of the multiphase electromechanical conversion systems with greatest impact in the research community. An exhaustive experimental sensitivity analysis of the close loop system performance based on more than three hundred trials in a test bench is presented.
5AMAMRA Sid-Ali, MEGHRICHE Meghriche, CHERIFI Abderrezzak, FRANCOIS Bruno
"Multilevel Inverter Topology for Renewable Energy Grid Integration"
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 64, N°. 11, 11
6ČERMÁK Martin, HECHT Frédéric, TANG Zuqi, VOHRALÍK Martin
"Adaptive inexact iterative algorithms based on polynomial-degree-robust a posteriori estimates for the Stokes problem"
Numerische Mathematik, ISBN DOI: 10.1007/s00211-017-0925-3, 11,
In this paper, we develop adaptive inexact versions of iterative algorithms applied to finite element discretizations of the linear Stokes problem. We base our developments on an equilibrated stress a posteriori error estimate distinguishing the different error components, namely the discretization error component, the (inner) algebraic solver error component, and possibly the outer algebraic solver error component for algorithms of the Uzawa type. We prove that our estimate gives a guaranteed upper bound on the total error, as well as a polynomial-degree-robust local efficiency, and this on each step of the employed iterative algorithm. Our adaptive algorithms stop the iterations when the corresponding error components do not have a significant influence on the total error. The developed framework covers all standard conforming and conforming stabilized finite element methods on simplicial and rectangular parallelepipeds meshes in two or three space dimensions and an arbitrary algebraic solver. Implementation into the FreeFem++ programming language is invoked and numerical examples showcase the performance of our a posteriori estimates and of the proposed adaptive strategies. As example, we choose here the unpreconditioned and preconditioned Uzawa algorithm and the preconditioned minimum residual (MinRes) algorithm, in combination with the Taylor–Hood discretization.
"Simulation of a large power Brushless Synchronous Generator (BLSG) with a rotating rectifier by a reluctance network for fault analysis and diagnosis"
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 10,
Abstract -- The aim of this paper is to simulate a large power brushless synchronous generator (BLSG) used for large turbo-alternator brushless excitation systems, under conditions of saturation and rotating rectifier diode failures. A reluctance network coupled with electric circuits and power electronic components integrating the movement and nonlinearities of materials has been developed. The approach achieves good compromise between accuracy and computing time for the complete analysis of a 39 phase machine with 117 teeth and 22 poles, and 78 diodes in the associated rectifier bridge. Our model is validated by comparison with experimental measurements and numerical simulation by a finite element package. For the simulations presented, a gain in computation time of 800 can be obtained compared with a finite element model. Different results are calculated for healthy and faulty states to study the impact of open diode block failure. Simulation results show that open diode failures have little effect on the rectified output voltage but the current through diodes and protection fuses increases. The currents in armature phase coil are very affected due to failures. A flux sensor coil can be placed on the stator pole to capture the impact of failures. The harmonic content of the pole flux can be used to monitor and detect diode failures.

Index Terms-- Reluctance network, rotating rectifier, diodes, saturation, fault analysis, fault detection.
"An Accurate Third-order Normal Form Approximation for Power System Nonlinear Analysis"
IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, N°. no.99, ISBN doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2017.2737462, 8, url
"Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation of Traction Power Supply for Power Flows Analysis of Multi-Train Subway Lines"
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 66, N°. 7, p. 5564-5571, 7,
Multi-train systems are complex to study due to the size of the system and its specificities. To tackle these difficulties, this paper develops a reduced-scale power Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation dedicated to subway lines emulations. Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is used to organize the HIL simulation. A first mono-train HIL simulation is developed and validated by experimental results. The HIL simulation is then extended to a two-train study to analyze the different power flows between subsystems.
10FARZAM FAR Mehrnaz, BELAHCEN Anouar, RASILO Paavo, CLENET Stéphane, PIERQUIN Antoine
"Model order reduction of electrical machines with multiple inputs"
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 53, N°. 4, p. 3355-3360, 7
"Impact of heating system on the range of an electric vehicle"
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 66, N°. 3, p. 4668 - 4677, 6,
For an accurate evaluation of the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV), many conditions must be considered (road profile, traffic influence, etc.). However cabin heating system is not often considered despite its significant impact. In this paper, the impact of the cabin heating system is studied on the driving range of an EV. A real EV is used as a reference. A multi-domain model is developed and validated by experimental results on the vehicle. From this validated model, the impact of the heating system on the range is evaluated up to 30% in cold climatic conditions. In a classical approach, an eco-driving mode enables an increase in the range by reducing the vehicle acceleration and velocity. When considering the heating system, the energy balance is more complex: the eco-driving mode can lead to an over-consumption of energy. A better compromise is required as a function of the climatic condition
12FRATILA Mircea, BENABOU Abdelkader, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, DESSOUDE Maxime
"Iron Loss Calculation in a Synchronous Generator Using Finite Element Analysis"
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 32, N°. 2, p. 640 - 648, 6, url,
This paper deals with the calculation of iron losses in a turgenerator using a magnetodynamic Finite Element (F.E.) Analysis accounting for the eddy currents in the damper bars. Two iron loss models, based on the Berttoti’s decomposition approach, are compared in the post-processing step of a F.E. calculation. The numerical model of the studied system is validated by comparing the calculation and the experiment for no-load conditions.
13SATHYAN Sabin, BELAHCEN Anouar, JUHANI Kataya, HENROTTE François, BENABOU Abdelkader, LE MENACH Yvonnick
"Computation of Magnetic Forces Using Degenerated Airgap Element"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, p. 7401304, 6, url,
This paper presents an efficient method to calculate the magnetic forces on bodies in contact. The forces are computed through the local application of the virtual work principle on degenerated air-gap elements. The results from this method are compared with those from other software and validated with measurements on a permanent magnet setup. Not only is this technique very accurate, but it also reduces the computational burden related to the problematic meshing of thin layers. The implementation of this method in an open source finite element software having facilities for higher order elements and parallel computation unlocks a cost effective and effectual platform for an electromechanical computation of electromechanical devices and magnetic materials.
14CHEAYTANI Jalal, BENABOU Abdelkader, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, DESSOUDE Maxime
"Stray load losses analysis of cage induction motor using 3-D finite element method with external circuit coupling"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, p. 8202104, 6, url,
The stray load losses in electrical machines represent a non-negligible contribution of the total losses and are a key point for an accurate evaluation of the energy efficiency of the considered device. In this paper, a methodology using the 3-D finite-element (FE) modeling approach and a posteriori loss calculation is presented for the estimation of the stray load losses. The case of a cage induction motor is investigated, and results are compared with the experiment. The simulation is performed at different load conditions using a 3-D FE model with external circuit coupling.
15MONTIER Laurent, PIERQUIN Antoine, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane
"Structure Preserving Model Reduction of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Problem based on POD and DEIM"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, 6,
The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) combined with the (Discrete) Empirical Interpolation Method (DEIM) can be used to reduce the computation time of the solution of a FE model. However, it can lead to numerical instabilities. To increase the robustness, the POD_DEIM model must be constructed by preserving the structure of the full FE model. In this article, the structure preserving is applied for different potential formulations used to solve electromagnetic problems.
16HENNERON Thomas, MONTIER Laurent, PIERQUIN Antoine, CLENET Stéphane
"Comparison of DEIM and BPIM to Speed up a POD-based Nonlinear Magnetostatic Model"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, 6,
Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) has been successfully used to reduce the size of the equation system and the computation time of linear Finite Element (FE) problems. With a nonlinear behavior law, the POD is not so efficient due to the computation cost of nonlinear entries of the full FE model. Then, the POD approach must be combined with an interpolation method of nonlinear terms to obtain an efficient reduced model. An interpolation method consists on the computation of a small number of nonlinear entries and on the interpolation of other terms. Different methods have been presented to select the set of nonlinear entries to be calculated. Then, the (Discrete) Empirical Interpolation method ((D)EIM) and the Best Points Interpolation Method (BPIM) have been developed. In this article, we propose to compare two reduced models based on the POD-(D)EIM and on the POD-BPIM in the case of nonlinear magnetostatics coupled with electric equation.
17YAN Xingyu, ABBES Dhaker, FRANCOIS Bruno
"Uncertainty analysis for day ahead power reserve quantification in an urban microgrid including PV generators"
Renewable Energy, Vol. 106, p. 288–297, 6, url,
Setting an adequate operating power reserve (PR) to compensate unpredictable imbalances between generation and consumption is essential for power system security. Operating power reserve should be carefully sized but also ideally minimized and dispatched to reduce operation costs with a satisfying security level. Although several energy generation and load forecasting tools have been developed, decision-making methods are required to estimate the operating power reserve amount within its dispatch over generators during small time windows and with adaptive capabilities to markets, as new ancillary service markets. This paper proposes an uncertainty analysis method for power reserve quantification in an urban microgrid with a high penetration ratio of PV (photovoltaic) power. First, forecasting errors of PV production and load demand are estimated one day ahead by using artificial neural networks. Then two methods are proposed to calculate one day ahead the net demand error. The first perform a direct forecast of the error, the second one calculates it from the available PV power and load demand forecast errors. This remaining net error is analyzed with dedicated statistical and stochastic procedures. Hence, according to an accepted risk level, a method is proposed to calculate the required PR for each hour.
"Experimental Investigation of Inverter Open-Circuit Fault Diagnosis for Bi-Harmonic Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Drive"
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, Vol. PP, N°. 99, ISBN DOI: 10.1109/JESTPE.2017.2719634, 6, url,
This paper proposes a procedure that is suitable for experimental investigation of real-time open-switch and open-phase faults diagnosis of a five-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) feeding a five-phase bi-harmonic Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (5-Φ B-PMSM). The algorithm is based on the specific characteristics of multiphase machines, which allows inverter fault detection with sufficient robustness of the algorithm in the presence of fundamental and third harmonic components. Firstly, the inverter fault effects analysis is achieved in the characteristic subspaces of the five-phase PMSM. Specificities that are interesting for the elaboration of a real-time Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) process are highlighted. Original and particular algorithms are used for an accurate two-dimensional normalized fault vector extraction in a defined fault reference frame. This frame is dedicated only for fault detection and identification. To ensure the high immunity of the FDI process against transient states, a particular normalization procedure is applied. The normalized diagnostic signals are formulated from the defined frame and others variables derived from the reference and measured currents. Simulation and experimental results of open-switch and open-phase faults are provided to validate the proposed algorithm.
"Friction Reduction through Ultrasonic Vibration Part 2: Experimental Evaluation of Intermittent Contact and Squeeze Film Levitation"
IEEE Transactions on Haptics, Vol. 10, N°. 2, p. 208-216, ISBN 1939-1412, 6, url,
In part 1 of the current study of haptic displays, a finite element (FE) model of a finger exploring a plate vibrating out-of-plane at ultrasonic frequencies was developed as well as a spring-frictional slider model. It was concluded that the reduction in friction induced by the vibrations could be ascribed to ratchet mechanism as a result of intermittent contact. The relative reduction in friction calculated using the FE model could be superimposed onto an exponential function of a dimensionless group defined from relevant parameters. The current paper presents measurements of the reduction in friction, involving real and artificial fingertips, as a function of the vibrational amplitude and frequency, the applied normal force and the exploration velocity. The results are reasonably similar to the calculated FE values and also could be superimposed using the exponential function provided that the intermittent contact was sufficiently well developed, which for the frequencies examined correspond to a minimum vibrational amplitude of - 1 μm P-P. It was observed that the reduction in friction depends on the exploration velocity and is independent of the applied normal force and ambient air pressure, which is not consistent with the squeeze film mechanism. However, the modelling did not incorporate the influence of air and the effect of ambient pressure was measured under a limited range of conditions, Thus squeeze film levitation may be synergistic with the mechanical interaction.
20VEZZOLI Eric, VIDRIH Zlatko, GIAMUNDO Vincenzo, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, GIRAUD Frédéric, RODIC Tomaz, PERIC Djordje, ADAMS Michael
"Friction Reduction through Ultrasonic Vibration Part 1: Modelling Intermittent Contact"
IEEE Transactions on Haptics, Vol. 10, N°. 2, p. 196-207, ISBN 1939-1412, 6, url,
Ultrasonic vibration is employed to modify the friction of a finger pad in way that induces haptic sensations. A combination of intermittent contact and squeeze film levitation has been previously proposed as the most probable mechanism. In this paper, in order to understand the underlying principles that govern friction modulation by intermittent contact, numerical models based on finite element (FE) analysis and also a spring-Coulombic slider are developed. The physical input parameters for the FE model are optimized by measuring the contact phase shift between a finger pad and a vibrating plate. The spring-slider model assists in the interpretation of the FE model and leads to the identification of a dimensionless group that allows the calculated coefficient of friction to be approximately superimposed onto an exponential function of the dimensionless group. Thus, it is possible to rationalize the computed relative reduction in friction being (i) dependent on the vibrational amplitude, frequency, and the intrinsic coefficient of friction of the device, and the reciprocal of the exploration velocity, and (ii) independent of the applied normal force, and the shear and extensional elastic moduli of the finger skin provided that intermittent contact is sufficiently well developed. Experimental validation of the modelling using real and artificial fingertips will be reported in part 2 of this work, which supports the current modelling.
"An Experimental Assessment of Open-Phase Fault-Tolerant Virtual Vector Based Direct Torque Control in Five-Phase Induction Motor Drives"
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 6, url,
Direct torque control (DTC) has been recently used for the development of high performance five-phase induction motor (IM) drives, where normal operation of the system has been usually considered and the ability of DTC to manage the situation has been analyzed in comparison with different rotor field-oriented control (RFOC) strategies. The exploitation of fault-tolerant capabilities is also an interesting issue in multiphase machines, where the utility of RFOC controllers has been stated when the open-phase fault operation is considered. In this paper, the performance of DTC and RFOC controllers based on proportional resonant regulators and predictive control techniques is compared when an open-phase fault appears in a five-phase IM drive. Experimental tests are provided to compare the performance of the system using these control alternatives.
22LEFORT Romain, VAUZELLE Rodolphe, COURTECUISSE Vincent, IDIR Nadir, POUSSARD Anne-Marie
"Influence of the MV/LV transformer impedance on the propagation of the PLC signal in the power grid"
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 31, N°. 3, p. 1339 - 1349, ISBN 0885-8977, 6,
Improving the operation of power grid and offering new smart applications, the deployment of a supervisory infrastructure is necessary. One solution to transmit data may be based on the Power Line Communication (PLC) technology. It consists in the superposition of the high frequency signals with the electrical signal 50/60 Hz. However, the power grids have not been designed to operate in high frequencies. Therefore, they provide a transmission channel with difficult propagation conditions. This paper deals with the modeling of the MV/LV power transformers in PLC frequencies. The proposed models are based on “lumped model” and “black box model”. They are performed in frequency band from 1 kHz to 1 MHz on SPICE and MATLAB softwares respectively. These models are based on impedance measurements and validated by experimental data. The advantages and drawbacks of each model are detailed from the presentation of modeling method and simulation results. The comparison of the simulation results show that “black box model” offers a good accuracy. The transmission results show that transformers are an important element in PLC studies because it provides significant losses. Moreover, these losses depend mainly on the values of the impedance terminals of MV/LV transformer.
23MONTIER Laurent, HENNERON Thomas, GOURSAUD Benjamin, CLENET Stéphane
"Balanced Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Applied to Magnetoquasistatic Problems Through a Stabilization Methodology"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 4
"PWM Strategy for the Cancellation of Common-Mode Voltage Generated by Three-Phase Back-to-Back Inverters"
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 32, N°. 4, p. 2675-2686, 4, url,
This paper presents a PWM strategy for the cancellation of common-mode (CM) voltage generated by three-phase back-to-back two-level inverters. This method theoretically provides complete elimination of the CM voltage by synchronizing all the commutations of one converter with commutations of the other one, so that the overall resulting CM voltage does not vary. The degrees of freedom of this strategy are studied and an experimental implementation is carried out on a 15kW motor drive prototype to validate the method effectiveness. Taking into account dead-time compensation, measurements in time and frequency domains show that the CM voltage is strongly reduced and that more than 15dB reduction is achieved in a wide frequency range.
25ARBENZ Laure, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane, MIPO Jean-Claude, FAVEROLLE Pierre
"Characterization of the Local Incremental Permeability of a Ferromagnetic Plate Based on a Four Needles Technique"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 3, 3, url,
The performances of electrical machines depend highly on the behavior of ferromagnetic materials. In some applications, these materials operate under DC polarization, i.e. when the magnetic field oscillates around a DC bias. In that condition, it is required to know the incremental permeability which characterizes the magnetic behavior of the material around the operating point. In this paper, a non-destructive approach, involving a combination of experiment and Finite Element (FE) technique, is presented in order to determine the incremental permeability. The proposed sensor is based on the four-needles method. With this sensor, Bowler et al. have proposed a method to determine the initial permeability of homogeneous metal plates based on an analytical model. Here we propose to use the same kind of sensor to determine the incremental permeability. The measurement process is analyzed using a FE model. It is shown that the analytical approach reaches its limits if the permeability of the plate and its thickness become too high. A combination between the measurements and a FE model is introduced to overcome this difficulty to determine the incremental permeability. The study of two magnetic steel samples illustrates the interest of this method.
26CARON Guillaume, HENNERON Thomas, PIRIOU Francis, MIPO Jean-Claude
"Waveform relaxation-Newton method to determine steady state: application to three-phase transformer"
The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 36, N°. 3, p. 729-740, 3,
To determine the steady state of an electromagnetic structure with the finite element method without calculation of the transient state. The proposed method permits to reduce the computation time if the transient state is important. In the case of coupling magnetic and electric circuit equations to obtain the steady state with periodic conditions, an approach can be to discretise the time with periodic conditions and to solve the equation system. Unfortunately, the computation time can be prohibitive. In this paper, the authors proposed to use the waveform relaxation method associated to Newton method to accelerate the convergence. The obtained results show that the proposed approach is efficient if the transient state is important. On the contrary, if the transient is very low it is preferable to use the classical approach namely the time stepping finite element method. The main limitation of the proposed approach is the necessity to evaluate or to know the time constant and consequently the duration of the transient state. Moreover the method requires some important memory resources. In the context of the use of the time stepping finite element method, one of the problems is the computation time which can be important to obtain the steady state. The proposed method permits avoidance of this difficulty and gives directly the steady state. The novelty is the proposal of the waveform relaxation Newton method to obtain directly the steady state in the case of the study of the three phases transformer
"On the Backstepping Approach for VSC-HVDC and VSC-MTDC Transmission Systems"
Electric Power Components and Systems - Taylor & Francis, Vol. 45, N°. 5, p. 520-533, ISBN 1532-5008, 3, url,
This article presents a backstepping control design strategy for the voltage source converter (VSC)-based high-voltage direct current (HVDC). First, a dynamic model is derived based on the state
space description. Subject to the backstepping control design proce-
dure strategy, a non-linear control scheme is developed in the sense
of Lyapunov stability theory in order to satisfy various objectives of
a stable HVDC system and guarantee a grid connection with a unity
power factor. Then, the proposed control method is extended for
multi-terminal (MT) HVDC transmission systems based on VSCs. In
order to improve the dynamic behavior of the controlled DC bus volt-
age and the stability of MTDC systems, a backstepping control strat-
egy accorded to each VSC is proposed and integrated into the voltage
droop control strategy. The designed advanced controller allows to
improve the overall DC grid stability and to reach the droop values,
designed on static considerations, with satisfying dynamic behavior.
Compared to the conventional control, the use of a backstepping con-
trol allows to exhibit excellent transient response over a wide range
of operating conditions.
"Open-Phase Fault-Tolerant Direct Torque Control Technique for Five-Phase Induction Motor Drives"
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 64, N°. 2, p. 902-911, 2, url,
Direct torque control (DTC) has been widely used as an alternative to traditional field-oriented control (FOC) methods for three-phase drives. The conventional DTC scheme has been successfully extended to multiphase drives in recent times, using hysteresis regulators to independently track the desired torque and flux in symmetrical five-phase induction machines (IM). The fault-tolerant capability of multiphase drives is an interesting intrinsic advantage for safety-critical applications, where recent research has demonstrated the effectiveness of FOC schemes to perform ripple-free post-fault operation. In spite of the utility of DTC methods in normal operation of the multiphase machine, no extension to manage the post-fault operation of the drive is found in the literature. In this paper, a novel fault-tolerant DTC scheme is presented. The performance of the proposed method is experimentally validated in a five-phase IM drive considering an open-phase fault condition. Provided tests analyze steady and transient states, including the transition from pre- to post-fault operation. Obtained results prove the interest of the proposal, which ensures the open-phase fault-tolerant capability of DTC controlled five-phase IM drives.
"Dual-Multiphase Motor Drives for Fault-Tolerant Applications: Power Electronic Structures and Control Strategies"
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 33, N°. 1, p. 572-580, 2, url,
This paper analyzes two fault-tolerant dual-multiphase motor drives, a series connected topology and a standard H-bridge topology. Previous studies have shown that the series connected topology is appropriate to an aerospace application and has lower peak current in degraded mode in comparison with the H-bridge topology, which may consequently diminish the system’s weight and cost. This paper extends the study to compare different control strategies of these structures under two fault conditions: short-circuit of an inverter’s switch and an open-phase of the machine. The control strategies analyzed in this paper do not impact the fundamental current or the torque generation, but the amplitudes of some harmonics in degraded mode are expected to be narrowed down in order to reduce the inverter’s size. Some analyses of maximum voltage and peak current in degraded mode have been used for inverter dimensioning. Experimental results are shown and compared to the simulated ones to confirm the validity of this study.
30LIU Mingyong, TANG Zuqi, MININGER Xavier, BOUILLAULT Frédéric, HUBERT Olivier, BERNARD Laurent
"Modeling of Magnetic-Induced Deformation Using Computer Code Chaining and Source-Tensor Projection"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, p. 1-4, 2, url,
Source tensor projections are developed for the magneto-elastic coupled problems when magnetostriction-induced force and magnetic force are considered. Comparisons with classical force density projection are first performed on a simple example. Then, it is investigated on an application of a multilayer transformer core with the consideration of material anisotropy and multilayer inhomogeneity.
"Real time electrical power estimation for the energy management of automatic metro lines"
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 131, p. 3-20, 1,
This paper intends to present a methodology to maximise reuse of regenerative braking energy in automatic
metro lines for both offline and real time energy management. It first describes optimisation
techniques for scheduling energy efficient timetables, while considering a no-fluctuation operating mode, as
it corresponds to the most dominant operating case. Impact of headway and dwell time management on
regenerative braking recovery are especially examined with a multi-criteria fitness function. Then, iterative
solving techniques are introduced to precisely quantify energy transfers between trains. A neural estimator
of trains power consumption is also proposed to meet real time requirements. Simulation results based on
experiments conducted on Torino metro line are exposed to evaluate the performance of this estimator.
"Methodology for technical and economic assessment of electric vehicles integration in distribution grid"
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 131, p. 172-189, 1,
This paper proposes a methodology to design a supervision system (SS) based on Fuzzy and Boolean logics. In the first stage, a graphical modeling tool is used to facilitate the analysis and the determination of Fuzzy–Boolean algorithm linked to the test system. To improve the performance of the proposed SS a genetic algorithm (GA) is implemented in the second stage. The SS objective is used to control electric vehicles (EVs) load in order to minimize the energy transmission costs (ETC) of the distribution system operator (DSO). To achieve this goal, it is necessary to promote local consumption of wind and photovoltaic (PV) power by coordinating them with EVs load, maximize EVs charging during cheaper energy periods and reduce subscribed power exceeding.
The performance of the SS is shown by numerical simulation results using Matlab/Simulink. Finally, a Matlab–PowerFactory
co-simulation framework is proposed in order to assess supervision system influence on the technical aspects of a real test grid.
33RIZOUG Nassim, SADOUN Rehda, MESBAHI Tedjani, BARTHOLOMEUS Patrick, LE MOIGNE Philippe
"Aging of High power Li-ion cells during real use of electric vehicles"
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, 1,
Currently, the vehicle manufacturers use the high power Li-ion technology to supply the electric and hybrid vehicles. This technology is able to ensure the power needed to propel the vehicle. Until now several studies have been made by the laboratories and manufacturers to characterize this technology. The aim of these test (electric, thermal, aging,…) is to make comparison between Li-ion technologies and choice the best one for each application. For that, they use accelerated cycling with different condition to characterize cells, what can reduce the tests duration. Unfortunately, this type of cycle can’t give us information about the aging of HP Li-ion technology under real use of the vehicle. Firstly, the requirements specification (vehicle specification, battery technologies, mission) has been presented. After that, we will present the test bench developed in our laboratory to characterize batteries and study the aging of the HP technology. In this paper we present the study of the Li-ion HP behavior during almost 3 years and the modelling (electric, thermal and aging modelling) using a real driving cycle. The experimental results are compared to the results obtained with the developed ageing model. The obtained results prove the good performances of this technology in electric vehicle applications.
34SHINODA Kosei, GUILLAUD Xavier, BACHA Seddik, BENCHAIB Abdelkrim, FRANCOIS Bruno
"Modelling of a VSC-based multi-terminal HVDC network for dynamic stability analysis"
The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 36, N°. 1, p. 240 - 257, 1,
Self-commuted voltage source converter (VSC) can significantly extend the flexibility and operability of an HVDC system and be used to implement the concept of multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) grid. To take full advantage of MTDC systems, its overall behaviour must be characterized in quasi static and dynamic states. Based on the numerous literatures, a dedicated two-level VSC model and its local controllers and DC grid voltage regulators are developed for this purpose. Furthermore, the requirement of the system to guarantee all the physical constrains must be well assessed and concrete demonstrations must be provided by numerical simulations.

First, a two-level VSC model and its local controllers and DC grid voltage regulators are developed. Then, DC cable models are investigated and their characteristics are assessed in the frequency domain. Those developed models are combined to form a three-terminal HVDC grid system on Matlab/Simulink platform. To analyze the stability of this electrical system, the dynamics of the system against variations of power dispatch are observed.

To analyze the stability of this electrical system, the dynamics of the system against variations of power dispatch are observed. The differences in the DC grid voltage dynamics and the power flow of the converter stations coming from the embedded primary controls are analysed, and the technical requirements for both cases are assessed.

In this paper, the dynamic stability of an MTDC system has been analysed and assessed through an adequate simulation model, including its control scheme and the cable models. The interest of the improved PI model for cables is highlighted.
35HOANG Trung-Kien, VIDO Lionel, GABSI Mohamed, GILLON Frédéric
"Flux control range broadening and torque ripple minimization of a double excitation synchronous motor"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 1, p. 1-10, 1,
This paper presents performance improvements of a double excitation synchronous motor by using a reluctance network (RN).
The distinguishing feature of the double excitation principle is to use permanent magnets with high energy, while air-gap flux is
flexibly controlled by field windings. Therefore, the first contribution of this paper focuses on maximizing air-gap flux range control. Second, an approach for torque ripple reduction is proposed by directly modifying air-gap flux according to the instantaneous torque profile. The achieved resultant torque stays almost constant for a case study. The validity of the RN method is examined by comparisons with 3-D finite element and experimental results for several machines.
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1BUZILA-PANKOVITS Petronela, ABBES Dhaker, SAUDEMONT Christophe, BRISSET Stéphane, POUGET Julien, ROBYNS Benoît
"Multi-criteria fuzzy-logic optimized supervision for hybrid railway power substations"
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 130, p. 236-250, 12,
Renewable energy sources and storage units’ integration in the railway power substations is an alternative solution to handle
the energy consumption, due to railway traffic increase and electricity market liberalization. To integrate this technology change in the railway network, an adapted energy management system has to be established. However, when considering only energy efficiency aspects on the energy management strategy, an economical viable solution cannot be ensured. This paper proposes a supervision strategy based on multi-criteria approach including energetic, environmental and economic constraints. The energy management objectives such as reducing the network power demand, favoring local renewable consumption and ensuring storage availability are treated in different time levels. Economic aspects are first integrated in predictive mode based on forecast data.
Then a supervision strategy is developed based on fuzzy logic approach and graphical tool to build it. An optimization study of
the supervision strategy is proposed in order to conclude on system performance. Simulation results are discussed for different scenarios cases and the reaction of the hybrid railway power substation is detailed. Results show that this methodology can be successfully applied for hybrid systems energy management in order to improve their energy efficiency.
"Influence of the heating system on the fuel consumption of a hybrid electric vehicle"
Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 129, p. 250–261, 12,
This research work aims to study the impact of the heating system on the fuel consumption of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The thermal engine is less used in an HEV than in a thermal vehicle, thus the cabin heating is partly ensured by electrical resistances. However, because the battery is partly charged by the thermal engine, this electrical heating has an impact on the fuel consumption. In the present work, a multi-domain model is proposed to analyze the impact of the heating system on the fuel consumption of a HEV. The models of the different physical subsystems are organized and unified by energetic macroscopic representation (EMR). Experimental validations, with an accuracy of 95%, are provided for each subsystem model. The validated simulation models are used to study the impact of the heating system for a specific driving cycle and climatic condition. For a simple energy management strategy (EMS), there is an over-consumption of 19% that is due to the heating system. When a more efficient EMS is used, the over-consumption is reduced to 12%. This study shows the interest in developing advanced energy management strategies that couple the traction and the heating functions of the vehicle.
"Dynamical Modeling and Emulation of Li-Ion Batteries/Supercapacitors Hybrid Power Supply for Electric Vehicle Applications"
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, 12,
Modeling dynamic behaviors of the Li-ion battery and supercapacitor in electric vehicle applications is a key aspect for the emulation of the hybrid power supply. In this paper, a dynamical model based on two nonlinear equivalent circuits is developed to describe the characteristics of the battery and supercapacitor during both steady-state and transient conditions. The necessary parameters for proposed model are extracted from measurement data in time and frequency-domain using an optimization algorithm. The developed model is coupled to power electronics devices fed by DC power supply to carry out a laboratory emulator of the hybrid power supply. This tool is mainly used for testing and verification of the electric vehicle performances with convenient and reproducible way. The proposed emulator avoids time-consuming preconditioning and safety problems generally caused by the misuse of electrochemical components such as the Li-ion battery. The modeling and experimental results show a good performance of the hybrid power supply emulator and confirm their feasibility over a wide range of operating points.
"Adaptive Energy Management System Based on a Real-Time Model Predictive Control With Nonuniform Sampling Time for Multiple Energy Storage Electric Vehicle"
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 12,
The performance of a dual energy storage electric vehicle system mainly depends on the quality of its power and energy managements. A real-time management strategy supported by a Model Predictive Control using the non-uniform sampling time concept is developed and fully addressed in this paper. First, the overall multiple energy storage powertrain model including its inner control layer is represented with the Energetic Macroscopic Representation and used to introduce the energy strategy level. The model of the system with its inner control layer is translated into the state space domain in order to develop a Model Predictive Control approach. The management algorithm based on mixed short- and long-term predictions is compared to rule-based and constant sampling time Model Predictive Control strategies in order to assess its performance and its ability to be used in a real vehicle. The real-time simulation results indicate that, compared to other strategies, the proposed Model Predictive Control strategy can balance the power and the energy of the dual energy storage system more effectively, and reduce the stress on batteries. Moreover, battery and supercapacitor key variables are kept within safety limits, increasing the lifetime of the overall system.
5AISSOU Riad, REKIOUA Toufik, REKIOUA Djamila, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm
"Robust nonlinear predictive control of permanent magnet synchronous generator turbine using Dspace hardware"
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 41, N°. 45, p. 21047-21056, 12
6AISSOU Riad, REKIOUA Toufik, REKIOUA Djamila, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm
"Application of nonlinear predictive control for charging the battery using wind energy with permanent magnet synchronous generator"
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 41, N°. 45, p. 20964-20973, 12
7ZAHR Hussein, GONG Jinlin, SEMAIL Eric, SCUILLER Franck
"Comparison of optmized Control Strategies of a Bi-harmonic five-phase Electrical Machine for Traction high speed range"
Energies, Vol. 9, N°. 12, p. 952, 11, url,
The purpose of the paper is to present the potentialities in terms of the control of a new kind of PM synchronous machine. With five phases and electromotive forces whose first ( ) and third ( ) harmonics are of similar amplitude, the studied machine, so-called bi-harmonic, has properties that are interesting for traction machine payload. With three-phase machines, supplied by a mono-harmonic sinusoidal current, the weak number of freedom degrees limits the strategy of control for traction machines especially when voltage saturation occurs at high speeds. As the torque is managed for three-phase machines by a current with only one harmonic, flux weakening is necessary to increase speed when the voltage limitation is reached. The studied five-phase machine, thanks to the increase in the number of freedom degrees for control, aims to alleviate this fact. In this paper, three optimized control strategies are compared in terms of efficiency and associated torque/speed characteristics. These strategies take into account numerous constraints either from the supply (with limited voltage) or from the machine (with limited current densities and maximum acceptable copper, iron and permanent magnet losses). The obtained results prove the wide potentialities of such a kind of five-phase bi-harmonic machine in terms of control under constraints. It is thus shown that the classical Maximum Torque Per Ampere (MTPA) strategy developed for the three-phase machine is clearly not satisfying on the whole range of speed because of the presence of iron losses whose values can no more be neglected at high speeds. Two other strategies have been then proposed to be able to manage the compromises, at high speeds, between the high values of torque and efficiency under the constraints of admissible total losses either in the rotor or in the stator.
8CAILLARD Pierre, GILLON Frédéric, RANDI Sid-Ali, JANIAUD Noëlle
"Mono and bi-level optimization architectures for powertrain design"
The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 35, N°. 3, p. 847-859, 11, url,
– The purpose of this paper is to compare two design optimization architectures for the optimal design of a complex device that integrates simultaneously the sizing of system components and the control strategy for increasing the energetic performances. The considered benchmark is a battery electric passenger car.

– The optimal design of an electric vehicle powertrain is addressed within this paper, with regards to performances and range. The objectives and constraints require simulating several vehicle operating points, each of them has one degree of freedom for the electric machine control. This control is usually determined separately for each point with a sampling or an optimization loop resulting in an architecture called bi-level. In some conditions, the control variables can be transferred to the design optimization loop by suppressing the inner loop to get a mono-level formulation. The paper describes in which conditions this transformation can be done and compares the results for both architectures.

– Results show a calculation time divided by more than 30 for the mono-level architecture compared to the natural bi-level on the study case. Even with the same models and optimization algorithms, the structure of the problem should be studied to improve the results, especially if computational cost is high.

– The compared architectures bring new guidelines in the field optimal design for electric powertrains. The way to formulate a design optimization with some inner degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on computing time and on the problem understanding.
9AMAMRA Sid-Ali, COLAS Frédéric, GUILLAUD Xavier, RAULT Pierre, NGUEFEU Samuel
"Laboratory Demonstration of a Multi-Terminal VSC-HVDC Power Grid"
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. PP, N°. 99, 11,
This paper presents the design, development, control and supervision of a hardware-based laboratory Multi- Terminal-Direct-Current (MTDC) test-bed. This work is a part of the TWENTIES (Transmission system operation with large penetration of Wind and other renewable Electricity sources in Networks by means of innovative Tools and Integrated Energy Solutions) DEMO 3 European project which aims to demonstrate the feasibility of a DC grid through experimental tests. This is a hardware-in-the-loop DC system test-bed with simulated AC systems in real time simulation; the DC cables and some converters are actual, at laboratory scale. The laboratory scale test-bed is homothetic to a full scale high voltage direct current (HVDC) system: electrical elements are the same in per unit. The test-bed is supervised by a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) system based on PcVue. Primary control based droop control method to provide DC grid power balance and coordinated control methods to dispatch power as scheduled by transmission system operator (TSO) are implemented. Since primary control acts as converter level by using local measurements, a coordinated control is proposed to manage the DC grid power flow. The implemented system is innovative and achievable for real-time, real-world MTDC-HVDC grid applications.
"Variable Speed Control of a 5-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Including Voltage and Current Limits in Healthy and Open-Circuited Modes"
Electric Power Systems Research, Elsevier, Vol. 140, p. 507-516, 11,
This paper proposes a novel variable speed control strategy of a particular 5-phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) in healthy and faulty modes by taking into account the constraints on voltages and currents. These constraints are related to the converter and machine design. The considered faults are open-circuited phases (one phase, two adjacent phases and two non-adjacent phases). A variable speed control strategy is presented, including flux weakening operations. Based on analytical formulations, a numerical computation is proposed to bring out the torque-speed characteristics. This method allows the determination of the current references which ensure the functioning of a 5-phase PMSG at variable speed while keeping phase voltages and currents below their limits. Theoretical, numerical and experimental results are presented. These results are compared in order to validate the proposed approach.
11LA DELFA Patricio, HECQUET Michel, GILLON Frédéric, FAKAM Mathias
"Low space order analysis of radial pressure in SPMSM with analytical and convolution approaches"
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 11, 11,
Abstract— This paper presents an analysis of low the space order of the air-gap radial Maxwell pressures in Surface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (SPMSM) with fractional slot concentrated windings. The air-gap Maxwell pressures result from the multiplication of the flux density harmonics due to magnetomotive forces and permeance linked to the magnet, the armature, and the stator slots and their interactions. One low space order is selected and different approaches are compared to determine the origin of this pressure. First, an analytical prediction tool ACHFO (Analytical Calculation of Harmonic Force Orders) is issues to calculate the space and time orders of these magnetic pressure harmonics while identifying their origin in terms of interactions between magnet, armature and teeth effects. Additionally, the analytical prediction of ACHFO is compared with the flux density convolution and finite element approaches. The main advantage of our tool is the speed of computation. Finally, an experimental Operational Deflection Shape measurement (ODS) is performed to show the deflection shape of the low space order selected.
Keywords— air-gap radial Maxwell pressures; lowest space order; analytical tool; convolution analysis; operational deflection shape.
"Vibration and acoustic noise of industrial inductors associated to converters in railway domain: design and material impacts"
The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. Issue 35, N°. 6, 11,
Acoustic comfort is an increasingly important factor at the design stage of industrial inductors associated to converters. In addition, power converters in railway domain are more and more compact and powerful. In this paper, inductors with different air-gap materials are used in order to reduce vibration and noise of inductors. Finite element calculations are performed and the detail of the origin of electromagnetic noise is studied. Electric and vibratory measurements (modal and operational analysis) are compared with the numerical calculations.
13MORIN Juliette, COLAS Frédéric, DIEULOT Jean-Yves, GRENARD Sébastien, GUILLAUD Xavier
"Embedding OLTC nonlinearities in predictive Volt Var Control for active distribution networks"
Electric Power System Research, 10
"Enhancing Variable Friction Tactile Display using an ultrasonic travelling wave"
IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 9, url,
In Variable Friction Tactile Displays, an ultrasonic standing wave can be used to reduce the friction coefficient between a user’s finger sliding and a vibrating surface. However, by principle, the effect is limited by a saturation due to the contact mechanics, and very low friction levels require very high vibration amplitudes. Besides, to be effective, the user’s finger has to move. We present a device which uses a travelling wave rather than a standing wave. We present a control that allows to realize such a travelling wave in a robust way, and thus can be implemented on various plane surfaces. We show experimentally that the force produced by the travelling wave has two superimposed contributions. The first one is equal to the friction reduction produced by a standing of the same vibration amplitude. The second produces a driving force in the opposite direction of the travelling wave. As a result, the modulation range of the tangential force on the finger can be extended to zero and even negative values. Moreover, the effect is dependant on the relative direction of exploration with regards to the travelling wave, which is perceivable and confirmed by a psycho-physical sbutton>
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Firme, rercess multIon Batteriand magthat thion is prffect idc bcycleynamiMrme, rercesd by field wiint allowe i, rerces,ect idc bcyc a full ge tburesridgmain a ariabless used i-phase drivesFirme, rerceshybrid power supplymagthatnts s, at high sdc bcyc a full an 30 fet, the a M Togenerativtion, theMMCfpervision strategy is prg avart is d be stud="resume">Modelint initch and steady-iffeMTicle. The real-time slluwhich aimisproperties thd bi-hay it is e, rercesral bi-levelcho-physical sbutton>
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Modeliis paper,ibration and,Tion (SCADent (HVDC) s on two nonlinear,hfnt wity, and thrque rlec conditiole. The reboftsts.ncentratmurpose ofontroltiovellinstem njustol scheme rque anss il- rai by the most describes imparme assesed upon i100MHzo-levelr to valheme re d. Howsrst one assesseder, tmptit bi-harmoneialitiesorigin e in romain: dstem lsooiegy i be donons. The torque ripp, thent (HVDC) s on two nonlinear system: eysis) are coincreas slot cnchrnseveloermred e ripp, thesorigin e in. r) d on anassg and exPredictiveagnet losation anleters for bsystem mos mimthdr by tric and vibrysis) wol">uroneiaesorigin differen: FablconvveloNanocr. Taegarecho-physical sbutton>
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11HORREIN Ludoviic, SCUILLER Francerneveloping advanced energy manippassuch as/eover, batterye w. The tionpnd Math Vology que anty tmanagend currentsvolutior EleorgEurnal of Hyd16EL), V 90-200,e2 the vehicle.
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10url, at hies in tealitdrmonst tevermizat es. Miv imulttermi ToacterppllrismSolvmfo fe ch.lle, the travach. sibrmultakmfo ropuirategiesih. Ho arcnt in teable spenaareedel-phase v loshe cs oi origs aid aroillleveasi,ne orig loshe cperip,elco t Fiphent(EVspaotecesndinmagnet l predee origi n anami aolux-weakytond regic . Bre HEVsett she age travhvele rder, t ïWe origin ontetetermi TotudiedfamusM aioars) is dts mtrse ofErmstemsMactera(FEM) huibewaidatiy . brattEMihe ucfe drawsuck huibewo-un In ttoevermIivellwhab/Siion iseinnesa n anae-sond tEMiiscnlco t Frmizatg -pn te well pToacterp(RSM) alittfe Eftem. WtaGlobr rO a sa n anae(EGO),hlgvirthgeonh. silihiadatexorng fo fe tEMis ma)ohasogch sm-ion -gap ion ise ror seion ise rseu arcinnesa n anaearycmulvibratinnes inl and ex rnterehore I>Ern eatermi Tsois)macterpreeviate nt i11-cho-physical sbutton>
10IntennEnt (HVDarical and Ele Researc7 Magneti/2L), V9-26,e4ysical sbutton>
The purpose ofthefIAMDOUNI Imei, EL AMRAOUI LTo aro,LLECQChristophe, BENREJEB M,sumeo, BROCHET Pitcatimiza"Mtim denergy mdind fed svalent cirmoanonnesa mfo fe dNE Phi ">Modeli/ippincd mdnricalEmblicachullli volutioCOMPELngineer33g (COMPEL), V953-964,e4 Eens on Haptics, dx.doip://io0.tp:8/COMPEL-06-utt3-0205g/document/7563434/" rel="external">url, fn oic,lass="is-gapdalent scomannes inind fed smoanonnesa mfo fe dNE Phi ">Modeli/ippincd mdnricalEmblicachullli pace orded on forDo rai/oacter on V/ind fed timizati–ig rst,sazpro. The r Ymodo railm-ion prbuilt.i)euol.b/SiiNE Phi m-ion prr, and thna. div c -ion aakys in strategiesndinthrusM tio Yants, eecol preanfi convolution o-ion eg Matlab/mi Totim denergy mdinnesa n anaeind fed sisea EleorgEVs fe dNE Phi m-ion hodinnesa rcnt in tensn air-e udo railpns. The nscce orded on forFslot cstimizati–ibratPad tool pinal and thoiprelitiinnesa n anaeind fed s(ion arceaafll thennesa n anaeind fed ,)zmsc">tlatltbe,n arcPad to, e travellagnet losoiprelitiine ra Elecre of he Mtim Oenergy mdGd sgin Algvirthge(MOGA)moacterp(ioneaafll thMOGAcysis) areeambl coincreasinnesa n anaeind fed sdenergy mdon and tetee are ofs)vibratinln -ga he MOGAcca rrnrn ) areregic mblicaomannes inPad tool pin, "re inaIn ttoooptoropots, emfo -unltbe,n arcotim denergy mdinnesa n anaeind fed p Atnned sflri beht ontin,Teaafll ti n anamleaes(EVsclmraimmectntne usee of he ots, emfo -unle travellh.lterew bniulmfo wo-coropmagnet pace orded on forOrig Mat an/, bettimizati–i fucles (EVssolvin arcotim denergy mdtr ting,shel consuhlgvirthgeion (SCADMOGAc prvalent cicho-physical sbutton>
7url, fn oic,lass="is-gapmental ga sidalecre of he apmal aeiniielh arenmtim -"to th o railn a sa n anaemacterntegration arcinnes indo raile fu eshondxsdnei Yaoiprelitifguidmnnfn ordtsoneedirfobctreiniielh areninnesa rrsre volvidtg are o railarycmul,s-ue an arcntcleeie ue s>fn ordCOeffepmaslatlonnesa rrhe fucles (EVsmpared in ordary paramidate th,t arel and exrational analEVs fon m>gnet losuomfo asuméed byi Taab-"to the a sa n anaemacter –is asserove quadragin er gs. oeve –icarri diore uomfo aotim einiielh arenfricibndino d on anaetionbe,dlaban ordaee are of he arcntvelh thlidat,ibr aretr lyflculiscce orded on forFslot cstimizati–iR and experimSigooy In addgeesumnnfn oic,hdate thronh. sibrmultow ept ropegretes(d cisue brl predoy are trteaes nnEle/nt shllpexcbe, ts periig advalysisincaeuniqueentcleeie ue sarycmulvcho-physical sbutton>
7HORREIN Ludovi, LHOMME Wallatic, SCUIILLARD Yaippa reresumeon Multyo />El >IEctepe of itcn ttoplimifobrahdiidal-ent (HVDrlodomoravevolution approaches"
The purpose ofthefIASLANakensthgeRG MichEN N, LEGRANGER Jtopomeic, SCUGd safleAoapere. FiM-ionfobr Surfa Antal o Edel-Chase v VoltonsLoshas foonCts,R Frandoa Mal ad. itchPMhMtudiedlee resCcn wnble sd Wslot cvolution approaches"
url, at hiMMF suppliedanwavelepethnsaampt orig.pondiermonst tb. Doy are trnitcsm>fn oic,roperso toilaeritxhibim mancccleeir-gap fe retime"> at hiearavarplied wavelepethsaampt orig.pondiwidisvibranntionent loshe csub-m-ions,ratidtusedc. Uchron oic,hlapere. Filidat,pt orig.boltonsloshe cthe mEn fSlots/Pol s thbeie ue sm>fn3 M5 Eaamp7 phitchmagnet ex3sis) tn wnble sd yslot cxrational ana. div cesLER Frandleaes(EVssuméefy thbeie ue smin stdoy are trl Tolies(d r, t baaenttfeiree orig loshe c to theg Matlab/i acles (EVsbon.fy) aretenw their rcndel,mtrse ofErmstemsm-ions,ratibuiltralitole. The rrl and exrational anale rescoapere. Fiears) isedus.cho-physical sbutton>
6Eltee. ThoivoluHVD) d on anaeM-ionlElecP so tc calitTsaw l,E Systemsetions 42L), V53-72,e3L)external">url,
8HORREIN Ludovi, DELARUE Pionspdd, VERHILLErédNoël, CHATTOThEN N, LE, AMBERG Michel, Ltimiza"C s,R Frandoa doy are trm-ions,rnd ole. The rrind fed etetion arceresuigin cndels fta)ohbwayvolution approaches"
9url, fn arcerror.cho-physical sbutton>
10InternNco be proM-ionlEle:mnsactions iN> aork stDsewer alittruidhst2ysical sbutton>
The purpose ofthefIBUENOfM ri -A, t,hic, AMBERG Michel, L, GIRAUD Frédéro,DINE Christophetimiza"Atole. The ral preaniRevindiesewerlpuirrue a HEV.thud s a i11-indifaconcs:Eadpaelimlnwryecndels ifbolvevvolutioT11-inditric Pow br />Inetions 84gen Ene1EL), V1428-1440,e2L)ens on Haptics, trj.sagepubef="hnt i1nt/c Ply/utt4/02/12/0040517514521116COMPEL-11-2015-0416" rel="external">url, u baaerny11-indifaconcs alitgarmng o,riRevindirfor. Thoibresullobcte astimizatit ctrne v aelo-gafullsuoltetion arcil. ablynent m belle, this-gaprfor. ThThmi Thuurenbe,d uomfo aiRevindiesewerli acles (EVtimizatiior. ThThmi Ty11-indifaconc.thud nent meracciulrlerny. TtRevindiesewerliss oiods arrmizatkmfdsm>fnfaconcs in rrfogch dxperimindtimizatifaconcs,rpemicalfbolvevllleviate cndel,m arcilluaecisippmindpiscniv i w o inhud aban ordsmoois)tldy rny. TtRevindiesewerlbstimizatii-i on afo fe coestem. Wtm>fnf ithat c"> at high stldy and tenrfi gs=" urh thhndlieavs=r-vetionalTs aes in teoig>IntiltimizatiquanstThe sls es raioinl preoo hinol on e profe m anprre harmedcoieviate cndelcalfbolvevifaconc. behaviourribe alTs a ILLARD Yace ordetfnned sinol on e profe m ang opHEV.tRevindirrue a baate cndeedcoviappsycho. rmed byimagneoresLER Fnd reve ich sle. ThattimizatifaconcsalTs abesM rrue a baaneedseann e. The rae resuloneeoove fhi ne m anp:fu esestem. Wtm>fnf ithat , e travder, t />IEctetimizatifi gs="l-vetion ion isat ; aioach. ue sahitchtion arcnbe, the fl-vetion ion isat ; ach ss ilcihe same T, rin anasgoftimizati fe coestem. Wtm>fnf ithat cysis)abore omb oilli The Twavelepeth.cho-physical sbutton>
7fnWavealcuitrlaxn anaeMacterppch Out, eaSpl p Ma Eh thoion fe O a sa n anaeippMal ale sE) />Elevolution approaches"
url, Elacionzsla afnohbs />Ele/ysis)doy are trt-un In ttr ysalW>culaTwavealcuirrlaxn anaeoacterp(WRM)ei acles (EVssor. ThThpemicayi />El, "re nts, especiso-uneo r">cr, r r evere fa sinnesa n anaent i11-alTsusb/wexa Elyheut, ea pl p ma Eh th(OSM) how euhe csental rm-ions,he tento />Elapuiratelerngeninnesa n anaalWRMe prdntetermi To-ionsi-gap matOSM.cho-physical sbutton>
7"Var afnWsloriTime fS />Ele/SuenergapuiSenslirs AchullliiFaal svoluHVDCI generator"
InternEnt (HVD inPnce o&riTime fS />ElestPower55,epyd402-419,e2L)ens on Hapticss, doip://io0.t016/j.ijer,o.utt3.09.021COMPEL-11-2015-0416" rel="external">url, Ele/suenergapuisensliroaal s,rachullli fatime alitpns. The TuD Yrnet t ma eTakagi–Sugeno fuzzy m-ionvellehonoy ircuiremental r arenonlEmblice lo y of its />Elestpnd tenulatm-ionis com fuzzy sn tultiies in tltiido railuso arcnt wph/>fnnd safl-dirfnol feemonalensn anaalTakagi–Sugeno fuzzy s />Ele/natiouméefedcoieEVs foneel Tolies(son (SCAD arcil, eamuad,cr alitaioaal tolern trcs in tesynHEVsv carycmdflepiscniv i oionned sf Tolylllevned sf Toly,rpestem. Wtmdescribesprperingravonolionrobgri rtolola n ana,re f, thcenn m>fnLyapunovToacterpplitTaylor et mafrtolola L, oion fe Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy s />El/ysis)pns. Thonc.uD Yrnet t ma,isensliroaal s,ralitachullli fatimeheTentoestem. Wtmdescribesprperino d on idtg aress="rh/>fnlEmblicmuad,xeEmbquanstipslibrat es. Miv imulttermi Tary parames in tltiido railmacterntegrarsnt Matlawdemd currtidchoroughlatr lo y of its />El/ysis)doubly fed(il. Inanaend saflliargapilluable sEctep es. Miv imulttermi Tary paramoacterscho-physical sbutton>
The purpose ofthefIFRATILA Miblea,aierABOUHA SeddadtifoTOUNZIHA Sedamilaïm, DESSOUDEothat Rtimiza"Cars) isedu nn
6ElvolutioMg thmaansproMacterpreeviaebAndlmid S of t stPower38gen Ene4,epyd738--750,e2L)ens on Haptics, onlEmblndinlynwindyef="hdoiio0.t002/mur.3104/abs-havig/document/7563434/" rel="external">url,
certol ishst.nNco be pro esM cf percchiheagnet lostenw their rmendithat s.cho-physical sbutton>
7url, < rMesh-to-meshifguidmtr lyfs="nscr anoi assese rseufi convolution nts, especislibypthallsndlmounaïs sty es Yrrrl meshEle Rotim gonsumacterp, doics odocionzsrol A hamptal ad. rmede tr tingsfogli/nnt (Hhe origin fruidhstdntetermi Tessnerove descurrentstg eud sin lyfs=shis-gapdescervrceresuigin ssehart mafremicalfmi To origin y of itand tenrjoult hen afo. n mag aress. Tume" terGaltikmatprojeee of hn ovs la Eh thdoics sb/wexintaconv lts angfi coecisipperesuigin normshoionnnt (Hhe origin fruidhalTs aesrg -pn dh thoioe. The r /w Tary par,x rnt Ho y of i-descervobatprojeee of he nnt (Hhe origin fruidhc"> at hidoy are trmeshsepace ordedho-physical sbutton>
at high sdoy are trcionzing o,he tento />El,fu eshondh sm-ion termi Tarycmult prmerion speIivellvalent ciruomfo a reresuigin math tchped remental Thic EVtimizatimentarvrccausanstyshoroughore thm-ion ba.i) d on anarl and exratit bniacal analysis)remental Thivemcal, numerical and e.cho-physical sbutton>
9"Var (TUFFC),pPower61gen Ene1,epyd147-158L)1="ens on Haptics, dx.doip://io0.tp:9/TUFFC.utt4.6689782g/document/7563434/" rel="external">url,
at high m.mizataest espem>fn oemoacterpisctow ept pllrismeasyrr, and thn anaeippaenlve h a haes in tetow eca rbe,dletpns. The TdrEfh/>fntento />El,fufhe Tan emg sevflepscr , oionexfhe epeTenzm-ion baav cesLER nalysis)tric and vi/>IEaatcal, numerica esM and ne travplsoeq, and ths reve-t-un In in talW>cig advalEVse1l, numericlyhegnet aaesettlmfo -unlhe 250 mtetion arctr von baawave, stem ioion baawave retime(SWR)lhe 1.3.cho-physical sbutton>
10HORREIN Ludoviic, SCUI, rntethe he fun EVTis com HEVruomfo dNE Phi er gs. oevevolution apptoaches"
10InternNco be proM-ionlEle:mnsactions iN> aork stDsewer alittruidhstPower27g (COMPEL), V385-399L)1="ens on Haptics, onlEmblndinlynwindyef="hdoiio0.t002/jnm.1963/abs-havig/document/7563434/" rel="external">url, fnferroe origin maonrlalseinntentseModeli/e fu turboallatnThois Atoleelrirfochasgin m-ionfobranh />Erigin nonlEmblicB(H)sphavmn-sTmey paramtion arcferroe origin yokes nncsseharey) are ILLARD Yaipphore, rin onstyseiatEVsetfive pns. The neinntentoluxr cesa the fdnteahitchnn
The purpose ofthefISAAD H ni, Gin, INE basti,lMAHSEREDJIANréd, DENNETIERE Sébtrananic, SCUMMCtC batteionPowespecDentvelh thstemBalL E ver />"Vars volution approaches"
IEEE TraDonaaddab/Power30 Magnet2L), V704 - 712L)1="external">url, El, "on (SCADese relatieresumeon Mult,r-sTmey parammultiv class="tion wstdoy are tres in teoidah:dlieavs= nce oalitdc.bolespenent Tary parames in tTi />Eltdentvelcsttfe subm-i oop(SM)sc batteionbs espesaoiprelitidc.bun bolespeneOntetermi Tp so tcmplsndlmounaïs ilfmi To advance delachive redundn trSMa enet so tcmplHVDCto />El ysis)401-"to thMMCs,ti clud ver10% redundn cy matMMCrSMa, isi-gap ermitpared o thstemdemd currtafo fe aest espelttermi Tary parames in tso />Elrmizv class="nlsoeof the opatnoo thc batteionbs especbalL E veres in ts"on (SCADmax –imseufn and tspeIivell-gapeEVs rasginiclyhe useds fe coincreassysid abaneoionned sSMcalitenhresussnts, especiathestem. Wcy.cho-physical sbut/tol e>cho-phyxternal">url, fnfi convolution nars) isedusa, r">coarri diore:ttfe suber tingseofne trav are. rmed bynevflepdoy ars,sarresolvidtsepns.tsls enttfeireowi meshsepace ordeleviate nitc,rGaltikmatprojeee of rnt Hoso-gafullsuollEVsenc ann arctr lyfs="ippm rmed byfruidhc"> at hidoy are trmeshsepace ordeIo ares nnElac r">ceicterwaidatiy lranssembo (Sovs ahiheroperseee of he wstmeshseiomiadatexorngsls ropegrete(Sovs ahiheteh otrmeshpace ordediv class=" niods a alitesLER nsatEVset wstr, and thn anaetanalyquesloionlitiGaltikmatprojeee of. cho-physical sbutton>
The purpose ofthefISARABI Siyamak, KEFSI Laid, MERDASSI Asma, ROBYNS Benoî timiza"Sovervise rrhe Plug-on and MathfVologl s tnnacm magap fe and MathfDirfnol fe rrGridsvoluHVDCI generator"
InternEnt (HVD iniTime Researcgen Ene4,epyd256-263g ISBN ISSN 2301-3656 E12L)ens on Haptics, www.ijoeep://i/roiex.php?m=nt i1nt&c=roiex&a=peri&ounad=35&ad=66COMPEL-11-2015-0416" rel="external">url, EltisTmey parame resultsaimrease useafo fe phce oloshe cpt sms especerofindpi, rntethe falianks(EVscldNE Phi er gs. oevedinnesa n anaeilgvirthg. V2G (Vologl (EVsGrid) anal on Ve printaconv irasmbenefivs nn
The purpose ofthefITANG Zuqi, LE MENACH Yvonn,ck, oREUSE EmureuthgenICAISE Sr in,TPIRIOUQChL E eic, SCUC s,R Frandoa Rn rdurecalitEquilndinm maError ErfornglisioiontEMiA EleorgEVs SurfaosespeciProtingsvolution approaches"
url, fn oemoashiiscnlue r"m olagnet aaidatiy esolund tspeIatcles (EVseee arenn arcquanstyseiactetimizatioash,cand sonrl riterror erforngliss, r">culatllleviate this fawepdalent srn rdureis com error erfornglissthe mEurfaosespecier tingstimizatie resiois)suméed byoioe. The r /ro are"ippmhs provell-gap,ansn air-e ushthequilndinm maerror erfornglislW>conal anntfeireseModelis osace ordeoo h co be proandlmounaïsctEVs-ue ariand tenrrI>Ern eaterned seiactem mat, thl meshElesarycmulvcho-physical sbutton>
7IEEE Transactions hstPower28gen Ene11,epyd5414-5422 E11="ens on Haptics, ieeexllrse.ieeep://isesmpisesmp.jsp?tp=&ar coinc=6410437g/document/7563434/" rel="external">url, Er-ent (H-iol batteresusse timizatimnce oesewer , r">ceafelrant saidatiy ls tric and esis) aic,tal ad.r te oactersee i mathvel bolespencho-physical sbutton>
The purpose ofthefIRAMAROTAFIKA Ril.ra,aierABOUHA SeddadtifooLENEHI técuiaetimiza"Stochasgin Jtnds-Actertoilm-ion rategieh thoionsoft e origin maonrlale, rin onstyvolutioThatII generator"
InttionCts, especisich Mg thmaansa on and Mathallstemnsactions ical and Ele (COMPEL),pPower32gen Ene5,epyd1679 -d1691="10="external">url, cafnohrave, ortr eds fw hihepngss="resusse ftenrfi indoewerl(tnt (HVDC) studied)eysir-elsoeof the patno tc n l c, rin onsty.mizataimreas, m /eric Pow is-gapdalent scirfochasgin m-ionfobrmi To origin seModelurmlawcafno cesyasesplisi-gap matclawcpondind safllianent Tary parammacterntegrarsnnd safl alite r">cp EleorgEVsocterwm rmed bymey ctrete fttnt (HVDC)sesewer lcho-physical sbutton>
6IEHapgin stPower6gen Ene4,epyd408-416 E10="external">url, <—Hapginepngleplimiftereurvevflevder, t /lem ols enttfetkmfdfobrmhud neAndlieavs=stemdNE Phi thud sv ces . HowodehuibewotetimizatioosilnevflC)swayeippexllrsevermIeviate cndel,mweeheothes raioinaliteee arenem ikmfhmaansstldyalcuitioneurvevflevpebleplimifhoroughace ordeigeavs=stemdNE Phi thud rmizv clldyalcuie r Ider, tRDte ror. Wt,sthivate, stemtr lyldy a fldystldy ; s mcallrsevesfldwxpl cnttimizatisuckwxpl nlo thmi Tfldystldy eysis)anfi gs=,i-gaiss, rigneev neurvevflevfeat baaerne1-hudidtdenerganent Tmenbe,ise"ippmldyalcuiand tentimizatieayeippthud sheothmhat iclyhe aoveverehorecuesloioneurvevflevpebleplimi,stsove r"lyfmi Tslip cue. Psycho. rmed bytee are oftimizatiesmd currtidchow hiheeinirimlnwlimifhoreshoidmnn at high timizatitnrhul dalite r rlem opi11- anplcho-physical sbutton>
8HORREIN Ludovi, DOLLINGER Nncmlasic, SCUC inolitpared o rrhe Peugeotr3∞8 H cons4InternEnt (HVDarical and ElecplitTanal on V, Power8gen Ene5,epyd1227-1233g 9="external">url, <(ntsmnaeaass=">fnL2EP LTole, stemPSA PeugeotrCiinoënlysisincMEGEVH,tti nd nn> aork/>IEHEV stent/liode r sue fobrmi TAwxpl Pass="Pur nroa I ap-VPPC 2012)ace ordedce ordedieanewnevl and Elec belle, tsdleae(EVscl s in teippaElellleviate this fats aes in teippa
9IEaatiyldlitgonsuio ares nnurl,
10Internp Eleorgnnt (Hhe originsealitmenbe,ids, IJAEM,stPower43g (COMP1,e9ysical sbutton>
7HORREIN Ludovi, TRIGUI RochdifoESPANEHIChscriopheciCUI Shtonitimiza"truid/weaken veres in tsnppaInternEnt (HVDarical and ElecplitTanal on V, Power8gen Ene5,epyd1096-1106g 9="external">url, El (THS) ilfmi TbesM knowitimizatiSP-HEVis com ,ologl , "re allatnThaveesolund ts,rpemicalftnt (HVDtimizatit rin l ctr lymrss of (EVT),eheother s-elsoeofrion speAntestem. WttimizatieshoR Frand"> at high s sdoy are trsolund tssiseankeyt ni trtyace ordeerfornge fe aeiode betaterned sty pon yrmizv class="of the oic, SC ordidalecre of he innes ines in teto wosset ma–eaafll thl constimizatiiPowetecm anproionnstem. Wcyanssessance lurion halTs adNE Phitimizatime gs. oevedoacterpisca EleorgEVs fe THS alittoha tnrhul timizatih consuvelogl (e resco EVTalTs aeayesultake ropuirategiesgh timizatisup and thnrawdegoneennfic, SC ordwheons,rnd teneevl an on iois)ty pon ieshisTme the arrmizatimizatiennes infuel In ttoplimifisit bniesLER nalohidoy are trdrith ttimizatieyclrprps brabaneore an ovs In ttoplimifobr fe aVTsty pon yrdce ordedien,candns. Thonc.cndelcperisctow epscerth thhndldatepfaThergc Pace orderetimeonn ordrope/>In-ntsbgriimi-evl an (ICE)dshhf eca ri, rnteic, SC ordaVTsnstem. Wcyatow ebocioee nlve cui ae THS estem. Wcy.cho-physical sbutton>
The purpose ofthefIWANG Ye, DELILLEGau tiet, BAYEM Hssure, Gin, INE basti,lFRANCOIS Brunotimiza"Hvel WslorEE TraPy otrn anaei aIsoon eorEE TraS />Ele—Assessance afnWslorInerthl dalitPenuarenti assesseR -pn ssevolution approaches"
ElestPower28gen Ene3,epyd2412-2420,r8geexternal">url, Elto advancellleviate this n ordr, and thn anaeippinerthl dr -pn ss alitpenuarenfi assessees in tevnlatr lo turb cines in tltiiperiin rrfogch driMrentll tw sxres. Mi thmi Tangss="resusse ftenrfi assessereg. The rrperiie harmedcoind Ibehaviour ndalTs a ILLARD Y tfnes in tepns. The nepnd teneturb cinopnr melesani tronn ordroerthl dr -pn ss are foapezsdchoroughlagnet losangss="resussiIEaatiyldlieit nce oi />ElalTs aesLbt loses in tsoowdm (uomfo iois)ss in tltis iscalsoevalent cirpnd tenemhs provese ftenragnet losgonsucervov lat laol r rloarpisceiniuteer.cho-physical sbutton>
The purpose ofthefIRAMAROTAFIKA Ril.ra,aierABOUHA SeddadtifooLENEHI técuiaetimiza"Stochasgin m-ion baaernanh />Erigin o origin chavmnuomfo rendoil I>Er-der, tn trcsestem. WtsvoluHVDCI generator"
InternA EleorgEnt (Hhe originsealitMenbe,ids (IJAEM)stPower43g (COMP1-2L), V151-159="7="ens on Haptics, dx.doip://io0.3233/JAE-131718COMPEL-11-2015-0416" rel="external">url, ElTsuenergapuiuD Yrnet t ma,iaefn daumericaaaovev ilfmi Trfochasgin m-ion baaerny. Til, eapns. The neiermi To-ionri)ental rnars) isedurps foaper pr/>Epsdheothhuibewes . Howod, alite r">cfounr mattenrlconr mupe.ileviate this faufhe Tme the versud sonEps,igh s sare f Eleorgoionhorem-ion baaerny. T, rin onstyseiatEVTo origin seModelrmlawcle ThorgEVsazoeteippo cesyasesplieeamelcs,,rssued oiprelitieamblpaoonv ana Ibeinnent Tarybn onssgin m-ionfobrmi Tpns. The neilfmi rield cmpared id uomfo asespesginica esM stem isuméed byMt i1 Carloh le. The r eTordr, ortr edsobrmakmfo rategiesippndinder, tRDcyaserucm anc"> at high stns. The neilfmi nlehohasr nd,ansnitpt y m-irey)sraimmectntls shthreand exle ThorgEVsy. T, ared o rrhe mi To-ionrcho-physical sbutton>
7InttionCts, especisich Mg thmaansa on and Mathallstemnsactions ical and Ele (COMPEL),pPower32gen Ene4="7ysical sbutton>
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7Intoionets, especisich mg thmaansa on end Mathallstemesactions ievl and Ele,pPower32gen Ene4="pyd1219 -d1229="7="ens on Haptics, www.nd al di . ghtef="hjr />Ins.htm?rssn=0332-1649&bolton=32&rssue=4&rol sXaid=17093297&shri=abs-havi&g/document/7563434/" relysical sbutton>
8Elt tnnacm magap fe gonsvoluHVDCSAproaches"
9Ins/smr/utt3/410567/g/document/7563434/" rel="external">url, fnn antawdegonesc"> at high stnding of exciespecispnd tenebrue aeffepdismldcnd vi/ rnt HosotEVTo at umt nce ooiprelitimenbe,id byyxciespeci.iHowevs fa fe tiezoent (HVDrmaonrlaleic,er nthhuiphce oloshe ; heneds fe brue aeffepdismldcnd vi/fhe same T prennesagap matcles (EVs Icr cothmi Timegiesippphce oe travellese reladtviEVsent (HVD anloleviae this fawe uso igeavs=y of itar rrfo cxgapdesin tetoe phce oflri,snt shll shthreand exare fgneev maw afi assessehe 200utt;Hzoe travelleair-belriats and safllieffepet onr yeti assesslcho-physical sbutton>
10Eels: A ntvelcame origin–menbe,id byind fed voluHVDCI generator"
InternSolidsrs Serucm ansctions 50 Magnet13,epyd2078-2086="6ysical sbutton>
7Ele/–iA=sweveyvolutioMg thmaans cpt sCos, eeiarmat) d on anafoElseasti,lions 91,epyd52-71,e5="external">url, Ele/(HES)iperiincc coEleln -sidtEVsi, rntesndingonsuiopegretimifoerr-v classace ordeeTime fgd safllia,iomiEVsi, rntesndineTime fnstem. Wcyans litie li To anaobrmoach ortts />Elellizv class="ofrion seannwevey/>IEctetimizatimacterntegieshgapda railfuzzy on e ebon (Ssovervise rraurrtigiusse ftess newtkmfdfobreTime fgd safl vers />ElellDoy are trwayn EVtimizatio advieresumeon Multra />Eltperimaol stratlawdiniuteer.cimizatinegraphVDC)slidat baaoo tev c-sidtEVsll instThthmi Tioaper prand tenrdo are cetimifoerfuzzy es in tealgvirthgc,hdapgcirgapdts,ndxtimizatih consus />Elellizemmacterntegrarsn>r Hod ihidoy are tr/>Epsdcovs mfo itido raile faesoverviso ooiprelitio />El york/oove fhiunaïstimizatitofa sinnesa eddr, and thn anaeippts aes in t.cimizatinnlEal, numericaDo railMacterntegra(EDM)scsLbt losysis)innesa n anaeilgvirthgsev c-sidtEVstunesazoeteipptns. The nesuitlassace ordetionaofuzzy soverviso omatcles (EVsonnesa e phce ,ieresum,fnstem. Wcy,sms especquansty,fnes oPhi or envaroiumericav t eflliandce ordedieaidalecre of he tzv c acterntegragap fe sovervise rrhe eoy are trty pon ieshhe HES, "on (SCADr-v classyy of itvinaogonsuo omatimizatisuild versndlmounaïs ortest eflidtEVstoach ortts />Ele,pilluable sshmi Tangss="resurand tenrs />Elagin dnumesue fobrmi Tind fed pcho-physical sbutton>
The purpose ofthefIGRUSECQChançoisb/LE MOIGNE Philippe, DELARUE Philippe, VIDET A015up,aCIMETIERE bastiic, SCUAnSleelriCirri r-Bon (SM-i on aoi oionhoreSVMfobrmi TMuad,xeCse relatvolutio n approaches"
The purpose ofthefIieDDEK KnscmfoCLENEHI técuiaefoMOREAU Oliasti,lLE MENACH Yvonn,cktimiza"Solund t obrlem oprfochasgin fi convolution arytingo–iidalecre of EVsECT-NDTvolutio n approach. tneMag,stPower49gen Ene5,epyd1605-1608 E5ysical sbutton>
7The purpose ofthefITHOMAS Pierre,lLE MENACH Yvonn,cktimiza"nnlArbitinlylizvck Shair-Fi convElution tionEddy-Chase v Dul dVeIn t-Searat Phs provesFioe. The r volution approach. Mag,tPower49gen Ene5,epyd1725-1728 E5ysical sbutton>
7Eamfgd safllivolution approaches"
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Eltestem. Wcyabyse useafo fe drss pflidtphce fogli/how agaemacterntegrarnms vafo fe eal, numericado railand gd sibeeilgvirthg)ysir-beTme the arrmizaes d on anaeand cal, numerilhreand exare tpared o thtt Tary paramarycmdflelcho-physical sbutton>
10url, at high ssober tingsloleviatetimizatimhis fawe mental gfguidmprojeee of macterp hn ovs la Eh thdoics space ordeIo eshoR FrandEVsearliereaork stts aeuméed by$L^{2}$ ort$mg tbf{L}^{2}$timizatime jeee of tenw rarsnent/liodeEVs$H(mg tbf{grad})$,t$mg tbf{H}(mg tbf{phal})$timizatiind $mg tbf{H}(>r)$m olagnet a Icr cotdmprojeee of lidationrtion arcdirfnol fe r btimizatingravn avus enePThoov-Galtikmatoacterpisctoenime the armpuifill shttimizatitesM spl p uomfo abi-orthogtor"EltousM aesolvidlcho-physical sbutton>
7IEEE Transactions hstPower28gen Ene3,epyd1157-1166ge3="ens on Haptics, ieeexllrse.ieeep://idocution/6242418/g/document/7563434/" rel="external">url, Erlare cee (EMI) i oise. EMI-fillatsxratit usse deln -sidtEVse useds feseiiol. Inidt oisesloionlitinshoniresure resnnt (Hhe origin cshoRti To anariandxplsloleviatetimizatimhis faaihvel-fi assesse(HF)/equivale trcircuiM m-ionfoionetsmnaem-io (CM)schokes -gap matEMI-fillatsxisTmey paramtogemi rre resivs spns. The Tne1-hso toicmarycmdflel mizv clarycmdflepxisTcion (S/>IEim ciresurtric and vi cpt sitp ncor ore sshan(ionr mive retim>Inton and tiadatexorngd tetittabatilgvirthg)EVse1-hso igh stns. The neinrmi To-ionriTt Tary paramm-ion rnamarycmdflepisca EleorgEVsaotld licCMschokeoe travell-sidtEVse iizesco EMI-fillatrmizaes d on edal and exnpptenrfillatpperimgoerppgoneumernwsis) arecal, numerilhSCA halmizv cle1-hso toicmarycmdflepxisTcquileeigd safl cpt sitp, rilsoe">cent/liodeEVsie harms shthHF m-ionfobrocterwmméevercionzing olcho-physical sbutton>
The purpose ofthefIGARCIAHERRERES Ival MauHVD o, KESTELYCQbasti,lGOMAND Julds,ciCOLE, N Ralph, BARRE Pierre-rédtimiza"M-ion-"on (Sdentvelh thes in teoacterpoiondureidrite gr yrnariages: A nitchcndelre resnal, numerilh, ared o rsvolutioCs in tscal and Ele P so tcestPower21gen Ene3,epydppyd298-307 E3="ens on Haptics, www.jr />Ins.elseastief="hes in t-evl and Ele-t so tce/g/document/7563434/" rel="external">url, at hiachullli ,dleae baaoormoormpzsrol Aelesangss="resus eTo ovs Inmis, m /drawback, a m-ion–"on (Sdentvelh thes in te prmerion speI coiatlab/apdNE Phi m-ionfobrmi Tgr yrnariagee prmerion speO Earie harmedcoind mpared id,rpemicm-ion prwritt i mat,ares nn
The purpose ofthefISANDULESCU Alexindru-Paul, MEINGUEHIFabds,ciKESTELYCQbasti,lRG MichEpheciBRUYERE Antoiaetimiza"Flux-weaken veropnr medu he inei-evdryslot cxdrite iopegretifo acosep es. Mite hvel-phce oIbehge ovolution T - and MathallS />Ele/matToach ortn anafoPower3g (COMP1,epyd10 - 21geISBN 2042-9738ge3="ens on Haptics, ieeexllrse.ieeep://.docatexy.univ-lTole1.frisesmpisesmp.jsp?tp=&ar coinc=6518032g/document/7563434/" rel="external">url, Ereli/essures ine orig synd r-nous studiedido raind oionlhso toicnppan(tnt (HVD ,ologl te cndeiap mata flux-weaken veropnr medurmizaety pon ympllrismtenrfn and tanstyseiaa hvel-phce oIbehge ohuibewagnet lo,cysisore idti thhnyrocterwsup and thnrawmnce oesewer peO itiecterwbe,db/ lneds ferexratit ree Ider, tRDtlphase vsfats aes in teserucm anche uhuibe,dletnotronls shth wstdq-phase vrcionzing o "re alsVsaozero-s asseselphase vpeIfi gnt (na,uio cshoR Frandysis)anwye-ntvelcammiree-ahitchdrite, iate zero-s asseselpionzing p, rcauso i hveleremuat umt eakc betater are. itchphase vsfaidtirator"
7url, The purpose ofthefITANeWenhuaciMARGUERECQbasti,lIDIR Nadirtimiza"An Aoapethi FiMacteritionMidat baaPns.srolclC batteresusse fEld licCionzing o tionEMI-Fillattvolutioiuey hndbr />InternEnt (HVDarical and Ele Researc6gen Ene3/4,epyd425-445g 3="ens on Hapticss, ejeeprevut onlEmbef="hrol sXa.jsp?arl sXaId=18596COMPEL-11-2015-0416" rel="external">url, at hital adiol. Inorhal2Dyoioe. The r /-gap matmicro-esactions seheother s-ent/liodeEVsenn l ctieaidalecre ofstenttfepnitcsse f ld lice origin cshozing ollTs a3Daears) isedu isatoeniion (SCADaaty of itind fed ie resultses . Hown anaeeiatEVTo origin corop es. MollPryto">urs nn
6ElvoluHVDCI generator"
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7HORREIN Ludovi, HISSEL DanithgePAPE Oliasti,lPERA Malie-CécilRtimiza"Ie rese ris com es in tsnppaIEVologtrat Tanal on V, Power62 Magnet2L), V500-5c0 M2="external">url, at hiair-iubs />Eleeobrmi TpzwebireinneAaes in teserucm ancm /dousedc bypan(il r sue fobrmi TEMRaerny. T,ologl /ozwebireinne) d on anarl and exesmd currtictieai onstyseiatE prre rese ris com es in tspuiraneev nminstTryemrss ofelcho-physical sbutton>
8IEEE Transactions hstPower28gen Ene1L), V31-335g 1="ens on Haptics, ieeexllrse.ieeep://idocution/6224188/g/document/7563434/" rel="external">url, Erlare cee(EMI) fillatsxratimovirsolund tsspuisup ressats aes . Inidtemrss ofeooipresespecieE Traese relatsfogli/oo hyeai ,diopegretimif analiquesloionEMI-fillatsxheother s-e deln in rrfogch dtEVse iizestoropots,so is />Elellleviate letts faaietsmnaem-io (CM)schokeee resuoroid-EQ mixes serucm ancm /me the arrmizte cnrucm ancm /coestituh dte faeuoroid FiCMschokeoembeddidtropuirn EQ corormTt Tary paramuoroid-EQ CMschokeoof the ohmiree-foidmadvantagesheg rst,nitp es. Miteln incr cotsats alaakagee . Inr edsobrmzaetyroid FiCMschokeoalithenedsincr cotsats aDMe . Inr edri)ees .lab/itse usedshtt Tans.srolcl tvelh th"> at hits aehokeoalittenrfillatp batteorhalg Matlab/mi Tpionzing p, r">ce.srlysfaconcn edaysis)lriacosermEal, numerilhvs mfhiunaïsxheother s-nirri diore pui, ared is, ep es. Miteimulttfhtt Tary paramuoroid-EQ CMschokelcho-physical sbut/tlass>cho-phyxternal">url, ElepeAnte of ito advance covervise rraurrtiglaion (SCADtt Trulosotfhtt ace ordeent (HVD anabsir-ysir-beTme the arrmizv class="thcunestenttfepcovervise rraurrtiglae resultshelpfoerfuzzy on e eps face ordegraphVDC)slacterntegragapsuild/itpeIivellperin,ae resultshelpfoer le. The rprand oo hnes oPhi and ccpon icicav t eflliaic, SC ow ts ae of itbsir-cosepelittenrCO2temrss ofeo, r">crousedc bypulmfo itiary paramsolund tcho-physical sbutton>
The purpose ofthefIGRBOVICePehar, DELARUE Philippe, LE MOIGNE Philippe, BARTHOLOMEUS Puad,cktimiza"Tt TUlurr- batteor Bon (SRegd safl othCs in tltdTand MathfDriteaae resEE TraSmoot abaC ba onstyvolution approaches"url, The purpose ofthefIFRATILA Radu,aierABOUHA SeddadtifoTOUNZIHA Sedamilaïm, MIPOrédCleudetimiza"NonlEmbaonMidat baanppM origi n anaeLoshemulPssures inM origs volution approaches"
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7El’srInerthlcvolution approaches"
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9ErvIntilgvirthgsvolutioCOMPEL:eTordII generator"
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6HOFI F. L.,TOULD ABDESLAM Dj ffar, BOUTHIBA T.,TNGUYEN Ngac Ky, MERCKLErédtimiza"AdalEmbsoionOnlEmbaS m Thoncl rCionzing o stemPhitchAlelesoIdeharmecre of matToachmrss of Liedsvolution approaches"
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The purpose ofthefIGONG JinlEm,aier AYED Ramzicio,LLECQChristopheciBRISSEHI técuiaefoBROCHEHIPasd btimiza"Ttree-Lto tcAdapgcirOut, eaSpl p Ma Eh thTanaliquehtionBi-Oenergy m Onnesa n anavolutioPrzegląemnsaktryteealiczny,f and MathallReastwstPower5geISBN ISSN: 0033-2097="7="ens on Haptics, pep://.pl/rssue.php?lale=1&="r=07b/2012g/document/7563434/" rel="external">url, The purpose ofthefIiRACIKOWSKI Nncmlas, HECQUEHIMichon,oBROCHEHIPasd b RSHIRINSKII Sr inytimiza"Mal a-. rmeds m-ion baaerna/essures ine orig synd r-nous studiedibypulmfo lto cirm-ionsvolutionl. abllalensactions hstn approaches"
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