# Publications

1 | VIDET Arnaud, MESSAOUDI Medhi, IDIR Nadir, BOULHARTS Hocine, VANG Heu "PWM Strategy for the Cancellation of Common-Mode Voltage Generated by Three-Phase Back-to-Back Inverters" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 32, N°. 4, p. 2675-2686, 4, url, This paper presents a PWM strategy for the cancellation of common-mode (CM) voltage generated by three-phase back-to-back two-level inverters. This method theoretically provides complete elimination of the CM voltage by synchronizing all the commutations of one converter with commutations of the other one, so that the overall resulting CM voltage does not vary. The degrees of freedom of this strategy are studied and an experimental implementation is carried out on a 15kW motor drive prototype to validate the method effectiveness. Taking into account dead-time compensation, measurements in time and frequency domains show that the CM voltage is strongly reduced and that more than 15dB reduction is achieved in a wide frequency range. |

2 | LESEL Jonathan, BOURDON D, CLAISSE Gauthier, DEBAY P, ROBYNS Benoît "Real time electrical power estimation for the energy management of automatic metro lines" Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 131, p. 3-20, 1, This paper intends to present a methodology to maximise reuse of regenerative braking energy in automatic metro lines for both offline and real time energy management. It first describes optimisation techniques for scheduling energy efficient timetables, while considering a no-fluctuation operating mode, as it corresponds to the most dominant operating case. Impact of headway and dwell time management on regenerative braking recovery are especially examined with a multi-criteria fitness function. Then, iterative solving techniques are introduced to precisely quantify energy transfers between trains. A neural estimator of trains power consumption is also proposed to meet real time requirements. Simulation results based on experiments conducted on Torino metro line are exposed to evaluate the performance of this estimator. |

3 | BOUALLAGA Anouar, DAVIGNY Arnaud, COURTECUISSE Vincent, ROBYNS Benoît "Methodology for technical and economic assessment of electric vehicles integration in distribution grid" Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 131, p. 172-189, 1, This paper proposes a methodology to design a supervision system (SS) based on Fuzzy and Boolean logics. In the first stage, a graphical modeling tool is used to facilitate the analysis and the determination of Fuzzy–Boolean algorithm linked to the test system. To improve the performance of the proposed SS a genetic algorithm (GA) is implemented in the second stage. The SS objective is used to control electric vehicles (EVs) load in order to minimize the energy transmission costs (ETC) of the distribution system operator (DSO). To achieve this goal, it is necessary to promote local consumption of wind and photovoltaic (PV) power by coordinating them with EVs load, maximize EVs charging during cheaper energy periods and reduce subscribed power exceeding. The performance of the SS is shown by numerical simulation results using Matlab/Simulink. Finally, a Matlab–PowerFactory co-simulation framework is proposed in order to assess supervision system influence on the technical aspects of a real test grid. |

4 | RIZOUG Nassim, SADOUN Rehda, MESBAHI Tedjani, BARTHOLOMEUS Patrick, LE MOIGNE Philippe "Aging of High power Li-ion cells during real use of electric vehicles" IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, 1, Currently, the vehicle manufacturers use the high power Li-ion technology to supply the electric and hybrid vehicles. This technology is able to ensure the power needed to propel the vehicle. Until now several studies have been made by the laboratories and manufacturers to characterize this technology. The aim of these test (electric, thermal, aging,…) is to make comparison between Li-ion technologies and choice the best one for each application. For that, they use accelerated cycling with different condition to characterize cells, what can reduce the tests duration. Unfortunately, this type of cycle can’t give us information about the aging of HP Li-ion technology under real use of the vehicle. Firstly, the requirements specification (vehicle specification, battery technologies, mission) has been presented. After that, we will present the test bench developed in our laboratory to characterize batteries and study the aging of the HP technology. In this paper we present the study of the Li-ion HP behavior during almost 3 years and the modelling (electric, thermal and aging modelling) using a real driving cycle. The experimental results are compared to the results obtained with the developed ageing model. The obtained results prove the good performances of this technology in electric vehicle applications. |

5 | HOANG Trung-Kien, VIDO Lionel, GABSI Mohamed, GILLON Frédéric "Flux control range broadening and torque ripple minimization of a double excitation synchronous motor" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, N°. 1, p. 1-10, 1, This paper presents performance improvements of a double excitation synchronous motor by using a reluctance network (RN). The distinguishing feature of the double excitation principle is to use permanent magnets with high energy, while air-gap flux is flexibly controlled by field windings. Therefore, the first contribution of this paper focuses on maximizing air-gap flux range control. Second, an approach for torque ripple reduction is proposed by directly modifying air-gap flux according to the instantaneous torque profile. The achieved resultant torque stays almost constant for a case study. The validity of the RN method is examined by comparisons with 3-D finite element and experimental results for several machines. |

1 | LI Ke, VIDET Arnaud, IDIR Nadir "Fast Power Semiconductors Switching Current Measurement by Current Surface Probe" EPE Journal, Vol. 99, N°. 99, 12, With the advantage of high bandwidth and small insertion impedance, a current surface probe (CSP) used to measure switching current waveforms is presented in this paper. Its transfer impedance is characterized and validated by measuring an IGBT switching current that is compared with those obtained with a current probe (CP), a current shunt (CS) and a Hall effect current probe (HECP). Furthermore, by comparing with a CS to measure a GaN-HEMT switching current, it is shown that CSP is able to measure a switching current of a few nanoseconds, while it brings no influence on transistor voltage waveform measurement. The obtained results show that, the use of CSP brings little parasitic inductances in the measurement circuit and it does not bring the connection of the ground to the power converter, which is the case for the CS. |

2 | BUZILA-PANKOVITS Petronela, ABBES Dhaker, SAUDEMONT Christophe, BRISSET Stéphane, POUGET Julien, ROBYNS Benoît "Multi-criteria fuzzy-logic optimized supervision for hybrid railway power substations" Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 130, p. 236-250, 12, Renewable energy sources and storage units’ integration in the railway power substations is an alternative solution to handle the energy consumption, due to railway traffic increase and electricity market liberalization. To integrate this technology change in the railway network, an adapted energy management system has to be established. However, when considering only energy efficiency aspects on the energy management strategy, an economical viable solution cannot be ensured. This paper proposes a supervision strategy based on multi-criteria approach including energetic, environmental and economic constraints. The energy management objectives such as reducing the network power demand, favoring local renewable consumption and ensuring storage availability are treated in different time levels. Economic aspects are first integrated in predictive mode based on forecast data. Then a supervision strategy is developed based on fuzzy logic approach and graphical tool to build it. An optimization study of the supervision strategy is proposed in order to conclude on system performance. Simulation results are discussed for different scenarios cases and the reaction of the hybrid railway power substation is detailed. Results show that this methodology can be successfully applied for hybrid systems energy management in order to improve their energy efficiency. |

3 | MESBAHI Tedjani, RIZOUG Nassim, KHENFRI Fouad, BARTHOLOMEUS Patrick, LE MOIGNE Philippe "Dynamical Modeling and Emulation of Li-Ion Batteries/Supercapacitors Hybrid Power Supply for Electric Vehicle Applications" IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, 12, Modeling dynamic behaviors of the Li-ion battery and supercapacitor in electric vehicle applications is a key aspect for the emulation of the hybrid power supply. In this paper, a dynamical model based on two nonlinear equivalent circuits is developed to describe the characteristics of the battery and supercapacitor during both steady-state and transient conditions. The necessary parameters for proposed model are extracted from measurement data in time and frequency-domain using an optimization algorithm. The developed model is coupled to power electronics devices fed by DC power supply to carry out a laboratory emulator of the hybrid power supply. This tool is mainly used for testing and verification of the electric vehicle performances with convenient and reproducible way. The proposed emulator avoids time-consuming preconditioning and safety problems generally caused by the misuse of electrochemical components such as the Li-ion battery. The modeling and experimental results show a good performance of the hybrid power supply emulator and confirm their feasibility over a wide range of operating points. |

4 | ZAHR Hussein, GONG Jinlin, SEMAIL Eric, SCUILLER Franck "Comparison of optmized Control Strategies of a Bi-harmonic five-phase Electrical Machine for Traction high speed range" Energies, Vol. 9, N°. 12, p. 952, 12, url, The purpose of the paper is to present the potentialities in terms of the control of a new kind of PM synchronous machine. With five phases and electromotive forces whose first ( ) and third ( ) harmonics are of similar amplitude, the studied machine, so-called bi-harmonic, has properties that are interesting for traction machine payload. With three-phase machines, supplied by a mono-harmonic sinusoidal current, the weak number of freedom degrees limits the strategy of control for traction machines especially when voltage saturation occurs at high speeds. As the torque is managed for three-phase machines by a current with only one harmonic, flux weakening is necessary to increase speed when the voltage limitation is reached. The studied five-phase machine, thanks to the increase in the number of freedom degrees for control, aims to alleviate this fact. In this paper, three optimized control strategies are compared in terms of efficiency and associated torque/speed characteristics. These strategies take into account numerous constraints either from the supply (with limited voltage) or from the machine (with limited current densities and maximum acceptable copper, iron and permanent magnet losses). The obtained results prove the wide potentialities of such a kind of five-phase bi-harmonic machine in terms of control under constraints. It is thus shown that the classical Maximum Torque Per Ampere (MTPA) strategy developed for the three-phase machine is clearly not satisfying on the whole range of speed because of the presence of iron losses whose values can no more be neglected at high speeds. Two other strategies have been then proposed to be able to manage the compromises, at high speeds, between the high values of torque and efficiency under the constraints of admissible total losses either in the rotor or in the stator. |

5 | GOMOZOV Oleg, TROVAO Joao, KESTELYN Xavier, DUBOIS Maxime "Adaptive Energy Management System Based on a Real-Time Model Predictive Control With Nonuniform Sampling Time for Multiple Energy Storage Electric Vehicle" IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 12, The performance of a dual energy storage electric vehicle system mainly depends on the quality of its power and energy managements. A real-time management strategy supported by a Model Predictive Control using the non-uniform sampling time concept is developed and fully addressed in this paper. First, the overall multiple energy storage powertrain model including its inner control layer is represented with the Energetic Macroscopic Representation and used to introduce the energy strategy level. The model of the system with its inner control layer is translated into the state space domain in order to develop a Model Predictive Control approach. The management algorithm based on mixed short- and long-term predictions is compared to rule-based and constant sampling time Model Predictive Control strategies in order to assess its performance and its ability to be used in a real vehicle. The real-time simulation results indicate that, compared to other strategies, the proposed Model Predictive Control strategy can balance the power and the energy of the dual energy storage system more effectively, and reduce the stress on batteries. Moreover, battery and supercapacitor key variables are kept within safety limits, increasing the lifetime of the overall system. |

6 | AISSOU Riad, REKIOUA Toufik, REKIOUA Djamila, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm "Robust nonlinear predictive control of permanent magnet synchronous generator turbine using Dspace hardware" International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 41, N°. 45, p. 21047-21056, 12 |

7 | AISSOU Riad, REKIOUA Toufik, REKIOUA Djamila, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm "Application of nonlinear predictive control for charging the battery using wind energy with permanent magnet synchronous generator" International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 41, N°. 45, p. 20964-20973, 12 |

8 | CAILLARD Pierre, GILLON Frédéric, RANDI Sid-Ali, JANIAUD Noëlle "Mono and bi-level optimization architectures for powertrain design" The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 35, N°. 3, p. 847-859, 11, url, – The purpose of this paper is to compare two design optimization architectures for the optimal design of a complex device that integrates simultaneously the sizing of system components and the control strategy for increasing the energetic performances. The considered benchmark is a battery electric passenger car. Design/methodology/approach – The optimal design of an electric vehicle powertrain is addressed within this paper, with regards to performances and range. The objectives and constraints require simulating several vehicle operating points, each of them has one degree of freedom for the electric machine control. This control is usually determined separately for each point with a sampling or an optimization loop resulting in an architecture called bi-level. In some conditions, the control variables can be transferred to the design optimization loop by suppressing the inner loop to get a mono-level formulation. The paper describes in which conditions this transformation can be done and compares the results for both architectures. Findings – Results show a calculation time divided by more than 30 for the mono-level architecture compared to the natural bi-level on the study case. Even with the same models and optimization algorithms, the structure of the problem should be studied to improve the results, especially if computational cost is high. Originality/value – The compared architectures bring new guidelines in the field optimal design for electric powertrains. The way to formulate a design optimization with some inner degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on computing time and on the problem understanding. |

9 | FALL Ousmane, NGUYEN Ngac Ky, CHARPENTIER Jean-Frédéric, LETELLIER Paul, SEMAIL Eric, KESTELYN Xavier "Variable Speed Control of a 5-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Including Voltage and Current Limits in Healthy and Open-Circuited Modes" Electric Power Systems Research, Elsevier, Vol. 140, p. 507-516, 11, This paper proposes a novel variable speed control strategy of a particular 5-phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) in healthy and faulty modes by taking into account the constraints on voltages and currents. These constraints are related to the converter and machine design. The considered faults are open-circuited phases (one phase, two adjacent phases and two non-adjacent phases). A variable speed control strategy is presented, including flux weakening operations. Based on analytical formulations, a numerical computation is proposed to bring out the torque-speed characteristics. This method allows the determination of the current references which ensure the functioning of a 5-phase PMSG at variable speed while keeping phase voltages and currents below their limits. Theoretical, numerical and experimental results are presented. These results are compared in order to validate the proposed approach. |

10 | TANNO-IAMAMURA Bruno, ROSSI Mathieu, HECQUET Michel, LANFRANCHI Vincent, RECORBET Sylvain, TRIDON Florence "Vibration and acoustic noise of industrial inductors associated to converters in railway domain: design and material impacts" The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. Issue 35, N°. 6, 11, Acoustic comfort is an increasingly important factor at the design stage of industrial inductors associated to converters. In addition, power converters in railway domain are more and more compact and powerful. In this paper, inductors with different air-gap materials are used in order to reduce vibration and noise of inductors. Finite element calculations are performed and the detail of the origin of electromagnetic noise is studied. Electric and vibratory measurements (modal and operational analysis) are compared with the numerical calculations. |

11 | MORIN Juliette, COLAS Frédéric, DIEULOT Jean-Yves, GRENARD Sébastien, GUILLAUD Xavier "Embedding OLTC nonlinearities in predictive Volt Var Control for active distribution networks" Electric Power System Research, 10 |

12 | LA DELFA Patricio, HECQUET Michel, GILLON Frédéric, FAKAM Mathias "Low space order analysis of radial pressure in SPMSM with analytical and convolution approaches" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 10, Abstract— This paper presents an analysis of low the space order of the air-gap radial Maxwell pressures in Surface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (SPMSM) with fractional slot concentrated windings. The air-gap Maxwell pressures result from the multiplication of the flux density harmonics due to magnetomotive forces and permeance linked to the magnet, the armature, and the stator slots and their interactions. One low space order is selected and different approaches are compared to determine the origin of this pressure. First, an analytical prediction tool ACHFO (Analytical Calculation of Harmonic Force Orders) is issues to calculate the space and time orders of these magnetic pressure harmonics while identifying their origin in terms of interactions between magnet, armature and teeth effects. Additionally, the analytical prediction of ACHFO is compared with the flux density convolution and finite element approaches. The main advantage of our tool is the speed of computation. Finally, an experimental Operational Deflection Shape measurement (ODS) is performed to show the deflection shape of the low space order selected. Keywords— air-gap radial Maxwell pressures; lowest space order; analytical tool; convolution analysis; operational deflection shape. |

13 | BERMUDEZ GUZMAN Mario, GONZALEZ-PRIETO Ignacio, BARRERO Federico, GUZMAN Hugo, DURAN Mario, KESTELYN Xavier "Open-Phase Fault-Tolerant Direct Torque Control Technique for Five-Phase Induction Motor Drives" IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 9, url, Direct torque control (DTC) has been widely used as an alternative to traditional field-oriented control (FOC) methods for three-phase drives. The conventional DTC scheme has been successfully extended to multiphase drives in recent times, using hysteresis regulators to independently track the desired torque and flux in symmetrical five-phase induction machines (IM). The fault-tolerant capability of multiphase drives is an interesting intrinsic advantage for safety-critical applications, where recent research has demonstrated the effectiveness of FOC schemes to perform ripple-free post-fault operation. In spite of the utility of DTC methods in normal operation of the multiphase machine, no extension to manage the post-fault operation of the drive is found in the literature. In this paper, a novel fault-tolerant DTC scheme is presented. The performance of the proposed method is experimentally validated in a five-phase IM drive considering an open-phase fault condition. Provided tests analyze steady and transient states, including the transition from pre- to post-fault operation. Obtained results prove the interest of the proposal, which ensures the open-phase fault-tolerant capability of DTC controlled five-phase IM drives. |

14 | GHENNA Sofiane, VEZZOLI Eric, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, GIRAUD Frédéric, AMBERG Michel, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty "Enhancing Variable Friction Tactile Display using an ultrasonic travelling wave" IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 9, url, In Variable Friction Tactile Displays, an ultrasonic standing wave can be used to reduce the friction coefficient between a user’s finger sliding and a vibrating surface. However, by principle, the effect is limited by a saturation due to the contact mechanics, and very low friction levels require very high vibration amplitudes. Besides, to be effective, the user’s finger has to move. We present a device which uses a travelling wave rather than a standing wave. We present a control that allows to realize such a travelling wave in a robust way, and thus can be implemented on various plane surfaces. We show experimentally that the force produced by the travelling wave has two superimposed contributions. The first one is equal to the friction reduction produced by a standing of the same vibration amplitude. The second produces a driving force in the opposite direction of the travelling wave. As a result, the modulation range of the tangential force on the finger can be extended to zero and even negative values. Moreover, the effect is dependant on the relative direction of exploration with regards to the travelling wave, which is perceivable and confirmed by a psycho-physical study. |

15 | SAMIMI Shabab, GRUSON François, DELARUE Philippe, COLAS Frédéric, BELHAOUNE Moez, GUILLAUD Xavier "MMC Stored Energy Participation to the DC Bus Voltage Control in an HVDC Link" IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 31, N°. 4, p. 1710-1718, 8, The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is be- coming a promising converter technology for HVDC transmission systems. Contrary to the conventional two- or three-level VSC-HVDC links, no capacitors are connected directly on the dc bus in an MMC-HVDC link. Therefore, in such an HVDC link, the dc bus voltage may be much more volatile than in a conventional VSC-HVDC link. In this paper, a connection between the dc bus voltage level and the stored energy inside the MMC is proposed in order to greatly improve the dynamic behavior in case of transients. EMT simulation results illustrate this interesting property on an HVDC link study case. |

16 | SHINODA Kosei, GUILLAUD Xavier, BACHA Seddik, BENCHAIB Abdelkrim, FRANCOIS Bruno "Modelling of a VSC-based multi-terminal HVDC network for dynamic stability analysis" The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 36, N°. 1, p. 240 - 257, 8, Purpose Self-commuted voltage source converter (VSC) can significantly extend the flexibility and operability of an HVDC system and be used to implement the concept of multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) grid. To take full advantage of MTDC systems, its overall behaviour must be characterized in quasi static and dynamic states. Based on the numerous literatures, a dedicated two-level VSC model and its local controllers and DC grid voltage regulators are developed for this purpose. Furthermore, the requirement of the system to guarantee all the physical constrains must be well assessed and concrete demonstrations must be provided by numerical simulations. Design/methodology/approach First, a two-level VSC model and its local controllers and DC grid voltage regulators are developed. Then, DC cable models are investigated and their characteristics are assessed in the frequency domain. Those developed models are combined to form a three-terminal HVDC grid system on Matlab/Simulink platform. To analyze the stability of this electrical system, the dynamics of the system against variations of power dispatch are observed. Findings To analyze the stability of this electrical system, the dynamics of the system against variations of power dispatch are observed. The differences in the DC grid voltage dynamics and the power flow of the converter stations coming from the embedded primary controls are analysed, and the technical requirements for both cases are assessed. Originality/value In this paper, the dynamic stability of an MTDC system has been analysed and assessed through an adequate simulation model, including its control scheme and the cable models. The interest of the improved PI model for cables is highlighted. |

17 | TRABELSI Mohamed, NGUYEN Ngac Ky, SEMAIL Eric "Real-time Switches Fault Diagnosis based on Typical Operating Characteristics of Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines" IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 63, N°. 8, p. 4683-4696, 8, A novel centroid-based diagnostic method of the power switches in five-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is proposed in this paper. Using a vectorial multi-machine description, a five-phase drive presenting an opened switch or an opened phase faults has typical operating characteristics in comparison to classical three-phase drives. Based on such characteristics, this work aims to provide a simple and robust diagnostic process for switches fault regardless of the shape of the back-EMFs (harmonic components) and the transient states due to the load variation. Original theoretical developments are presented. Experimental results are shown to validate the proposed strategy. |

18 | ZIANI Smail, HENNERON Thomas, PUIGDELLIVOL Oriol, LE MENACH Yvonnick "A method coupling modified vector potential A* and homogenization formulations to model short circuits in lamination stacks" The European Physical Journal - Applied Physics (EPJ AP), Vol. 75, N°. 3, p. 11, 8, In this paper a method in 2-D frequency domain is presented to simulate a laminated iron core with a short-circuit between several magnetic sheets. The approach consists in coupling homogenization methods and finite element method. The defect is modeled with A* modified vector potential formulation and the rest of the structure with a homogenization method. The coupled method is applied to a lamination stack containing a short-circuit and compared to the reference, where the A* formulation is applied on the whole domain. Finally, a thermal modeling of lamination stack is presented to study the influence of an insulating defect. |

19 | HAMADA Souad, LOUAI Fatima Zohra, NAIT-SAID Nasreddine, BENABOU Abdelkader "Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model" Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (JMMM), Vol. 410, p. 137-143, 7, url, An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed. |

20 | TAN Wenhua, MARGUERON Xavier, TAYLOR Laurent, IDIR Nadir "Leakage Inductance Analytical Calculation for Planar Components with Leakage Layers" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 31, N°. 6, p. 4462-4473, 6, Planar magnetic components are promising solutions for the integration of power electronic systems. The leakage inductance of such components plays an essential role in power converters. In this paper, an analytical modeling method for leakage inductance computation is developped for planar components with plasto-ferrite leakage layers. This method is based on the solution of Poisson’s equations for magneto-static using multilayered Green’s functions. The obtained formulations are general and precise and have been validated by numerical tests. Experimental characterizations have been performed on two magnetic components: A planar LLC and planar common mode choke. The obtained results show that with the described method, the static leakage inductance of planar components can be accurately estimated. |

21 | DO Minh Thang, MERDASSI Asma, ROBYNS Benoît "Management and evaluation of the Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage integrated in the power system considering the contribution to system services" European Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 19, 6, This paper proposes a methodology of real-time supervision which allows maximizing ancillary services and contributing to the profitability of the Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage. A real-time multi-objectives supervisor based on fuzzy logic is developed in order to maximize the economic gain of the storage, taking into account the buy/sell action and ancillary services (imperative and additional) of the storage, such as frequency control, congestion management and covering renewable energy production. The proposed supervisor is tested on the IEEE 14 bus test system. The results of the simulation show a significant economic gain of the storage when participating in ancillary services and in others additional services which need a real-time management. |

22 | TRUONG Phuoc Hoa, FLIELLER Damien, NGUYEN Ngac Ky, MERCKLE Jean, STURTZER Guy "Torque Ripple Minimization in Non-Sinusoidal Synchronous Reluctance Motors Based on Artificial Neural Networks" Electric Power Systems Research, Elsevier., 6, This paper proposes a new method based on Artificial Neural Networks for reducing the torque ripple in a non-sinusoidal Synchronous Reluctance Motor. The Lagrange optimization method is used to solve the problem of calculating optimal currents in the d-q frame. A neural control scheme is then proposed as an adaptive solution to derive the optimal stator currents giving a constant electromagnetic torque and minimizing the ohmic losses.Thanks to the online learning capacity of neural networks, the optimal currents can be obtained online in real time. With this neural control, each machine’s parameters estimation errors and current controller errors can be compensated. Simulation and experimental results are presented which confirm the validity of the proposed method. |

23 | MESBAHI Tedjani, KHENFRI Fouad, RIZOUG Nassim, BARTHOLOMEUS Patrick, LE MOIGNE Philippe "Combined Optimal Sizing and Control of Li-Ion Battery/Supercapacitor Embedded Power Supply Using Hybrid Particle Swarm-Nelder-Mead Algorithm" IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, Vol. 8, N°. 1, p. pp.59-73, 6, url, This paper examines and optimizes parameters that affect the sizing and control of a hybrid embedded power supply composed of Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors in electric vehicle applications. High demands including power and energy density, low charge/discharge power stress on the battery (long lifetime), lightweight design and relatively modest cost at the same time cannot be provided solely by batteries or supercapacitors. For this reason, we propose the use of a Li-ion battery/supercapacitor hybrid embedded power supply for an urban electric vehicle. The sizing process of this system including the optimization of the power sharing is done thanks to a developed hybrid Particle Swarm–Nelder–Mead (PSO–NM) algorithm involving multi-objective optimization. This approach also allows us to optimize the proposed energy management strategies based on frequency rule-based control and different ways of supercapacitors energy regulation. Obtained results show that the hybrid embedded power supply with the proposed control strategies is able to offer the best performances for the chosen electric vehicle in terms of weight, initial cost and battery lifetime. |

24 | CUELLAR Carlos, IDIR Nadir, BENABOU Abdelkader "High Frequency Behavioral Ring Core Inductor Model" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 31, N°. 5, p. 3763 - 3772, 5, The switching of the power semiconductors in static converters is the main source of electromagnetic interferences (EMI). To meet with Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standards, it is necessary to reduce the level of the conducted emissions. This reduction can be achieved by different techniques including the EMI filters whose design is mainly based on the use of ring core inductors. This element is a key point for designing efficient EMI filters, requiring then accurate inductor high frequency (HF) models. Therefore, the present paper deals with the development of a HF behavioral model of inductors, based on electrical equivalent circuit, for an implementation in circuit simulation software. The aim is to provide a robust and adjustable model under small-signal operating conditions for frequencies up to 100MHz. The proposed model considers the frequency dependent properties of the magnetic core material and also includes the parameterization of the electrical equivalent circuit elements with the number of winding turns and dimension of the magnetic core. Simulations results using the obtained inductor model are validated by impedance measurements with two types of magnetic materials: Ferrite and Nanocrystalline |

25 | BACCHUS Alexandre, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, ARGAUD Jean-Philippe, BOURIQUET Bertrand, BIET Mélisande, MACAIRE Ludovic, LE MENACH Yvonnick "Estimation of FEM Model Parameters Using Data Assimilation and Its Application to an Electrical Machine" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 5, url |

26 | TAYLOR Laurent, HENNERON Thomas, MARGUERON Xavier, LE MENACH Yvonnick, LE MOIGNE Philippe "Model-Order Reduction of Magneto-harmonic Problems Based on POD. Application to Planar Magnetic Components" The European Physical Journal - Applied Physics (EPJ AP), Vol. 74, N°. 1, p. 10903, 4, url, Predetermination of losses and inductance values in the design phase, is necessary for the development of high-performance magnetic components for power electronics. Numerical modeling, based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) can be used to determine the characteristics of a particular component with a complex geometry in high frequency (HF). These models are very accurate but the computation time required is high compared to analytical models. The Model Order Reduction (MOR) methods can be applied to reduce the computation time while maintaining high accuracy. Nowadays, the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is the most popular of MOR approaches. This technique has been applied to study problems in many elds of engineering. In this paper, the POD method is developed to solve magneto-harmonic problems in order to study a planar magnetic inductor. |

27 | SOURON Quentin, LE BESNERAIS Jean, HECQUET Michel "Analysis of electromagnetically-induced vibrations of electrical machines based on spatiogram technique" International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), Vol. 51, N°. S1, p. S23 - S32, ISBN DOI: 10.3233/JAE-2021, 4 |

28 | MAYET Clément, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHATTOT Eric, VERHILLE Jean-Noël "Comparison of Different EMR-based Models of Traction Power Substations for Energetic Studies of Subway Lines" IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 65, N°. 3, p. 1021-1029, 3, Simulation is a valuable way to develop cleaner transportation systems. Nevertheless, the complexity of this kind of system conducts to complex models, especially to take into account non-linear aspects of traction power substations (TPS). This paper proposes thus different TPS models based on the Energetic Macroscopic Representation. An appropriate model is deduced from comparisons between the different models to realize energetic studies. It is finally applied to the simulation of a simple subway line, which is experimentally validated. |

29 | PIERQUIN Antoine, HENNERON Thomas, BRISSET Stéphane, CLENET Stéphane "Multirate coupling of controlled rectifier and non-linear finite element model based on Waveform Relaxation Method" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3 |

30 | PIERQUIN Antoine, BRISSET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas "Multidisciplinary optimization formulation for the optimization of multirate systems" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3 |

31 | CARON Guillaume, HENNERON Thomas, PIRIOU Francis, MIPO Jean-Claude "Time periodicity condition of nonlinear magnetostatic problem coupled with electric circuit imposed by Waveform Relaxation Method" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, ISBN 0018-9464, 3, url, In numerical computation, the finite element (FE) method associated with external electric circuits is often used to evaluate electromagnetic devices with voltage sources. To study the solution of the steady state, the computation time can be prohibitive due to a large transient state compared to the time step used to discretize the time domain. In this paper, a method based on Waveform Relaxation Method is developed in order to impose the steady state of the solution in the case of a nonlinear magnetostatic problem coupled with electric circuit equations. |

32 | LIU Sijun, MAC Duy Hung, CLENET Stéphane, COOREVITS Thierry, MIPO Jean-Claude "Study of the Influence of the Fabrication Process Imperfections on the Performance of a Claw Pole Synchronous Machine Using a Stochastic Approach" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3, url |

33 | BOUGHANMI Walid, HENROTTE François, BENABOU Abdelkader, LE MENACH Yvonnick "Finite Element Implementation and Experimental Validation of 2-D/3-D Magnetic Force Formulas" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 2, 3, url, A framework for the finite element implementation of the formulas of local and global electromagnetic forces is presented. The theoretical framework, based on the Lie derivative, is applicable to 2-D and 3-D problems in the presence of arbitrary materials. The numerical properties of the proposed implementation, in terms of accuracy and convergence, are analyzed. An experimental setup is also presented for which accurate measurements have been carried out, and that can serve as a benchmark for the implementation. |

34 | SCUILLER Franck, ZAHR Hussein, SEMAIL Eric "Maximum reachable torque, power and speed for five-phase SPM machine with low armature reaction" IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 31, N°. 3, p. 959 - 969, 3, url, In this paper, the study of the torque and power versus speed characteristics for a family of five-phase Surfacemounted Permanent Magnet (SPM) machine is carried out. With considering hypotheses (linear magnetic modeling, only first and third harmonic terms in the back-emf and current spectrums), an optimization problem that aims to maximize the torque for given maximum peak voltage and RMS current is formulated: the optimal torque sharing among the two virtual machines (the two dq-axis subspaces) that represent the real five-phase machine is thus calculated for any mechanical speed. For an inverter and a DC voltage sized with only considering the first harmonic of backemf and current, the problem is solved with changing the virtual machine back-emfs and inductances ratios. With the introduction of the maximum torque/speed point, maximum power/speed point and maximum reachable speed, it can be shown that, if the inductance ratio is large enough, for given Volt-Ampere rating, the machine can produce higher torque without reducing its speed range thus meaning that the capability of the inverter to work is improved with the use of the third harmonic. This property is all the truer as the base armature reaction is large. A particular five-phase machine is sized and numerically analyzed to check this property. |

35 | MONTIER Laurent, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane, GOURSAUD Benjamin "Transient simulation of an electrical rotating machine achieved through model order reduction" Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences, Vol. 3, N°. 10, 3, url, Model order reduction (MOR) methods are more and more applied on many different fields of physics in order to reduce the number of unknowns and thus the computational time of large-scale systems. However, their application is quite recent in the field of computational electromagnetics. In the case of electrical machine, the numerical model has to take into account the nonlinear behaviour of ferromagnetic materials, motion of the rotor, circuit equations and mechanical coupling. In this context, we propose to apply the proper orthogonal decomposition combined with the (Discrete) empirical interpolation method in order to reduce the computation time required to study the start-up of an electrical machine until it reaches the steady state. An empirical offline/online approach based on electrical engineering is proposed in order to build an efficient reduced model accurate on the whole operating range. Finally, a 2D example of a synchronous machine is studied with a reduced model deduced from the proposed approach. |

36 | SARABI Siyamak, DAVIGNY Arnaud, COURTECUISSE Vincent, RIFFONNEAU Yann, ROBYNS Benoît "Potential of Vehicle-to-Grid Ancillary Services Considering the Uncertainties in Plug-in Electric Vehicle Availability and Service/Localization Limitations in Distribution Grids" Applied Energy, Vol. 171, p. 523-540, ISBN 0306-2619, 3, url, he aim of the paper is to propose an approach for statistical assessment of the potential of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) ancillary services, where it focuses on PEVs doing daily home-work commuting. In this approach, the possible ancillary services (A/S) for each PEV ﬂeet in terms of its available V2G power (AVP) and ﬂexible intervals are identiﬁed. The ﬂexible interval is calculated using a powerful stochastic global optimization technique so-called ‘‘Free Pattern Search” (FPS). A probabilistic method is also proposed to quantify the impacts of PEV’s availability uncertainty using the Gaussian mixture model (GMM), and interdependency of stochastic variables on AVP of each ﬂeet thanks to a multivariate modeling with Copula function. Each ﬂeet is analyzed based on its aggregated PEV numbers at different level of distribution grid, in order to satisfy the ancillary services localization limitation. A case study using the proposed approach evaluates the real potential in Niort, a city in west of France. In fact, by using the proposed approach an aggregator can analyze the V2G potential of PEVs under its contract. |

37 | WANG Zifu, HENNERON Thomas, HOFMANN Heath "Space-Time Field Projection: Finite-Element Analysis Coupled Between Different Meshes and Different Time-Step Settings" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3 |

38 | HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Application of the PGD and DEIM to Solve a 3-D Non-Linear Magnetostatic Problem Coupled With the Circuit Equations" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3 |

39 | NGUYEN Thu-Trang, MAC Duy Hung, CLENET Stéphane "Uncertainty Quantification Using Sparse Approximation for Models With a High Number of Parameters: Application to a Magnetoelectric Sensor" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, ISBN 0018-9464, 3 |

40 | CLENET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas, IDA Nathan "Reduction of a Finite-Element Parametric Model Using Adaptive POD Methods—Application to Uncertainty Quantification" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 3, 3 |

41 | CLENET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas "Error Estimation for Model Order Reduction of Finite Element Parametric Problems" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, N°. 8, p. 1-10, 3, url |

42 | CASTAINGS Ali, LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi, BOUSCAYROL Alain "Comparison of energy management strategies of a battery/supercapacitors system for Electric Vehicle under real-time constraints" Applied Energy, Vol. 163, p. 190-200, 2 |

43 | MESBAHI Tedjani, KHENFRI Fouad, RIZOUG Nassim, BARTHOLOMEUS Patrick, LE MOIGNE Philippe "Dynamical Modeling of Li-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicle Applications Based on Hybrid Particle Swarm-Nelder-Mead (PSO-NM) Optimization Algorithm" Electric Power Systems Research Journal, Elsevier, Vol. 131, N°. C, p. 195-204, 2, url, In recent years, Li-ion batteries are widely used in various applications, such as electric and hybrid vehicles application. Their higher specific power and energy density, high cycle lifetime and decreasing costs have made them an attractive and alternative energy storage technology to lead-acid or nickel- metal hydride batteries in embedded power supplies. In the present work, the electric modeling of a Li-ion battery cell in real operating conditions imposed by an electric vehicle application is carried out. A dynamic equivalent circuit model has been used to simulate several electrochemical processes occurring in a commercially available 40 Ah Li-ion battery cell with NMC cathode material and graphitic anode. The model is parameterized with measurement data in time-domain using a hybrid Particle Swarm–Nelder–Mead (PSO–NM) optimization algorithm. This last one is used to solve the parameters identification problem of Li-ion battery model. The developed model of Li-ion battery cell has been validated on real driving cycle provided by an urban electric vehicle. Obtained results show that there is a good match between experiment and simulation results with a maximum modeling error less than 0.5%, which proves the well performance of our model and confirm the interest of a hybrid (PSO–NM) optimization algorithm for battery identification parameters. |

44 | BEN MESSAOUD Wael, GIRAUD Frédéric, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, AMBERG Michel, BUENO Marie-Ange "Amplitude control of an ultrasonic vibration for a tactile stimulator" IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol. 21, N°. 3, ISBN DOI: 10.1109/TMECH.2016.2535300, 2, url, This paper describes the control in a (d-q) frame of the vibration amplitude of a tactile stimulator based on ultrasonic vibrations. The goal is to fulfil simultaneously two objectives: maintain a constant level of vibration amplitude and excite the system at the resonance frequency. A new modelling approach is presented in order to facilitate the control and to fulfil the two objectives simultaneously. Then, thanks to an experimental setup, the validation of the new model is performed. Finally, the result of the closed loop control over a wide range of disturbing factors is presented. |

45 | BEN MESSAOUD Wael, BUENO Marie-Ange, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty "Relation between human perceived friction and finger friction characteristics" ELSEVIER Tribology International, Vol. 98, p. 261–269, ISBN doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2016.02.031, 2, url, The topic of this paper concerns the relation between friction perception and finger friction behaviour. Two experiments were processed for some 20 individuals. The aim of the first experiment was to determine the distribution function of the perceived friction variation detected by the individuals, relating to the friction variation of the touched surface generated with a tactile stimulator. The second experiment was to determine the finger friction criterion correlated with the perceived friction variation analysed from psychophysical techniques. This criterion, called the friction contrast, depends on the individual finger and is influenced by the sliding velocity. |

46 | LI Ke, VIDET Arnaud, IDIR Nadir "Characterization Method of SiC-JFET Interelectrode Capacitances in Linear Region" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 31, N°. 2, p. 1528-1540, 2, url, In order to study switching waveforms of a SiCJFET, its inter-electrode capacitances evolution is necessary when the power device is in linear region. In this paper, the reverse transfer capacitance Cgd is at first characterized by the multiplecurrent- probe method and afterwards validated by the measurement with an impedance analyzer. The output capacitance Coss is measured by the same method and compared with the single-pulse characterization, which shows a huge increase of the apparent capacitance values in linear region. The influence of the power transistor internal gate resistor is thus studied, revealing the inter-electrode capacitances measurement difficulties when the power device is in linear region. The characterization results are allowed to finely model the power transistor of which the switching behaviors are validated with the measurement in a buck converter. |

47 | DO Minh Thang, SOUBDHAN Ted, ROBYNS Benoît "A study on the minimum duration of training data to provide a high accuracy forecast for PV generation between two different climatic zones" Renewable Energy, Elsevier, Vol. 85, p. 959–964, 1, This study focus on the minimum duration of training data required for PV generation forecast. In order to investigate this issue, the study is implemented on 2 PV installations: the first one in Guadeloupe represented for tropical climate, the second in Lille represented for temperate climate; using 3 different forecast models: the Scaled Persistence Model, the Artificial Neural Network and the Multivariate Polynomial Model. The usual statistical forecasting error indicators: NMBE, NMAE and NRMSE are computed in order to compare the accuracy of forecasts. The results show that with the temperate climate such as Lille, a longer training duration is needed. However, once the model is trained, the performance is better. |

48 | NGUYEN Ngac Ky, MEINGUET Fabien, SEMAIL Eric, KESTELYN Xavier "Fault-Tolerant Operation of an Open-End Winding Five-Phase PMSM Drive with Short-Circuit Inverter Fault" IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 63, N°. 1, p. 595-605, ISBN 0278-0046, 1, url, Multi-phase machines are well-known for their fault tolerant capability. Star-connected multiphase machines have fault tolerance in open-circuit. For inverter switch short-circuit fault, it is possible to keep a smooth torque of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) if the currents of faulty phases are determined and their values are acceptable. This paper investigates fault-tolerant operations of an open-end five-phase drive, i.e. a multi-phase machine fed with a dual-inverter supply. Inverter switch short-circuit fault is considered and handled with a simple solution. Original theoretical developments are presented. Simulation and experimental results validate the proposed strategy. |

1 | KOTNY Jean-Luc, DUQUESNE Thierry, IDIR Nadir "Influence of the common mode impedance paths on the design of the EMI filters used with SiC-buck converter" ADVANCED ELECTROMAGNETICS (AEM), Vol. 4, N°. 2, p. 44-53, ISBN 2119-0275, 12, url, This paper deals the design method of EMI filter associated with buck converter using silicon carbide (SiC) power semi-conductors. It's well known that to comply with EMC standards, EMI filters are necessary. The aim is to propose a design method based on an equivalent electrical circuit. Thus, the first step is the identification of the different elements of the proposed model but also the limits values of the parasitic elements of the passive components which play a major influence on the efficiency of the filters. The main objective is to study the influence of the common mode paths on the design of the filter before and after its installation. A filtering solution is proposed to reduce the high frequency disturbances caused by the fast SiC components. The simulation results obtained with the proposed model are compared with the measurements show the effectiveness of the proposed EMI filter design method. |

2 | GHENNAM Tarak, ALIOUANE K, AKEL F, FRANCOIS Bruno, BERKOUK EL Madjid "Advanced Control System of DFIG Based Wind Generators for Reactive Power Production and Integration in a Wind Farm Dispatching" Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 105, p. 240 - 250, 11 |

3 | CASTAINGS Ali, LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi, BOUSCAYROL Alain "Practical control schemes of a battery/supercapacitor system for electric vehicle" IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, Vol. 6, N°. 1, p. 20-26, 11 |

4 | VEZZOLI Eric, BEN MESSAOUD Wael, NADAL Clément, GIRAUD Frédéric, AMBERG Michel, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, BUENO Marie-Ange "Coupling of ultrasonic vibration and electrovibration for tactile stimulation" European Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 17, N°. 5-6, p. 377-395, ISBN doi:10.3166/ejee.17.377-395, 11, url, RÉSUMÉ L’électrovibration et l’effet squeeze film produit par vibration ultrasonique sont deux principes de stimulation tactile permettant de modifier la sensation de toucher d’un utilisateur explorant une surface plane. Le présent article s’attache à démontrer leur compatibilité sur un même stimulateur tactile lors d’une utilisation concomitante. Une description du principe physique et des spécificités de chacun des phénomènes sera entreprise et les résultats expérimentaux obtenus lors de leur association seront par ailleurs présentés. ABSTRACT Electrovibration and squeeze film effect are two different principles, which modify the user’s perception of a surface. The first one is generated by the polarization of a finger approaching a high voltage supplied plate, and the latter by the ultrasonic vibration of a plate. Their compatibility on the same stimulator will be presented in this paper and their concomitant use will be proven. A parametric study on electrovibration in function of the material choice and a first experimental investigation of the validity of the squeeze film effect hypothesis are performed. A description of the physical principle and the characteristics of each effect will be proposed and force measurements of their coupling will be presented. |

5 | DIBANGOYE Jilles, DONIEC Arnaud, FAKHAM Hicham, COLAS Frédéric, GUILLAUD Xavier "Distributed Economic Dispatch of Embedded Generation in Smart Grids" Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 44, p. 64-78, 10 |

6 | DIEULOT Jean-Yves, COLAS Frédéric, CHALAL Lamine, DAUPHIN-TANGUY Geneviève "Economic supervisory predictive control of a hybrid power generation plant" Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 127, p. 221-229, 10, url, This work deals with the development of an economic supervisory predictive control method for the management of a hybrid renewable energy system. The hybrid cell integrates solar panels, a gas microturbine and a storage unit. Tuning the predictive controller is easy: the optimal criterion encompasses the environmental, fuel, energy delivery and storage costs. Short time predictions of the solar power are embedded in the supervisor which yields smoother battery control and better power management. Real-time experiments are driven in a Hardware-in-the-Loop framework illustrating the relevance of the proposed supervisory predictive control design. |

7 | GUILLAUD Xavier, FARUQUE Omar, TENINGE Alexandre, PAOLONE Mario, LAUSS Georg, DUFOUR Christian "Applications of Real-Time Simulation Technologies in Power and Energy Systems" IEEE on Power and Energy Technology Systems Journal,, Vol. 2, N°. 3, p. 103 - 105, 9 |

8 | YANG Yi, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, GIRAUD Frédéric, AMBERG Michel, ZHANG Yuru, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe "Power analysis for the design of a large area ultrasonic tactile touch panel" The European Physical Journal - Applied Physics (EPJ AP), Vol. 72, p. 1-11, 9, url, Tactile interfaces are intuitive but lack of haptic feedback. One method to provide tactile feed- back is to change the friction coeﬃcient of the touch surface. Several small-size tactile devices have been developed to provide programmable friction coeﬃcient based on the squeeze air ﬁlm eﬀect. This eﬀect is produced by ultrasonic vibration of the tactile plate thanks to piezoceramics. In order to design larger embedded tactile feedback areas, a key issue is the power consumption. In this paper, we present the power analysis of a tactile device which is based on the squeeze ﬁlm eﬀect. We ﬁrst investigate the source of power consumption by a series of measurements. Then, an analytical model is developed to estimate the power, which gives the conclusion that, when the vibration amplitude is constant, the power consumption is not related to the number of piezoelectric actuators. According to this result, we design a large area (198 mm × 138 mm) tactile plate with only eight piezoelectric actuators. Experimental results show that the power consumption of the large tactile plate is less than 2 W. Moreover, we also ﬁnd that the power consumption of the large tactile plate was predictable with the measurement results from small plates with an average error of less than 10%. |

9 | GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, GIRAUD Frédéric, AMBERG Michel, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty "Generalized modal analysis for closed-loop piezoelectric devices" Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 24, N°. 8, p. 085028, ISBN 0964-1726, 1361-665X, 8, url |

10 | TANG Zuqi, LE MENACH Yvonnick, CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, PIRIOU Francis, NICOLAS Nemizt "A posteriori residual error estimators with mixed boundary conditions for quasi-static electromagnetic problem" The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 34, N°. 3, p. 724-739, 7 |

11 | BUENO Marie-Ange, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, AMBERG Michel, GIRAUD Frédéric "Pile Surface Tactile Simulation: Role of the Slider Shape, Texture Close to Fingerprints, and the Joint Stiffness" Tribology Letters (Springer), Vol. 59, N°. 25, p. 2-12, 7, url, Stimulating the human hand with a tactile device in order to simulate pile fabric touch is a challenge. The stimulation has to be designed from the friction characteristics of the investigated pile surfaces, i.e. velvet fabrics. The tactile illusion of pile is given when touching the smooth plate of the tactile stimulator STIMTAC by modulating the coefﬁcient of friction between the plate and the ﬁnger during an active movement. In a preliminary study, ﬁve tribological features as velvet fabric character- istics were identiﬁed, used for the design of the stimulator’s control signal, and validated via psychophysical studies where real and simulated fabrics were compared. But a speciﬁc tribological feature described and expected by individuals was missing. Then, a tribological investigation has been done in order to obtain this tribological feature, with the ﬁve previous ones, by changing experimental conditions: slider shape, texture, and joint stiffness. The obtained results show that a rounded shape of the slider has an inﬂuence only on the friction force level, but a texture of the slider close to ﬁngerprints and a joint stiffness is crucial to obtain the missing characteristic and therefore for the pile surface tribological characterization. The role of the ﬁngerprints in touching grooved surfaces has been pub- lished before but not for pile surfaces. |

12 | LALOUNI S., REKIOUA Djamila, IDJDARENE Kassa, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm "Maximum Power Point Tracking Based Hybrid Hill Climb Search Method Applied to Wind Energy Conversion System" Electric Power Components and Systems, Vol. 43, N°. 8-10, p. 1028-1038, 6, url |

13 | ARBENZ Laure, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane, MIPO Jean-Claude, FAVEROLLE Pierre "Characterization of the local electrical properties of electrical machine parts with non-trivial geometry" International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), Vol. 48, N°. 2-3, p. 201-206, 6 |

14 | TANG Zuqi, LE MENACH Yvonnick, CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, PIRIOU Francis "Residual a posteriori estimator for magnetoharmonic potential formulations with global quantities for the source terms" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 51, N°. 3, 6, In the modeling of eddy current problems, potential formulations are widely used in recent days. In this paper, the results of residual-based a posteriori error estimators, which evaluate the discretization error in the finite-element computation, are extended to the case of several kinds of source terms for both A/φ and T/Ω harmonic formulations. The definitions of the estimators are given and some numerical examples are provided to show the behavior of the estimators. |

15 | LI Ke, VIDET Arnaud, IDIR Nadir "Using Current Surface Probe to Measure the Current of the Fast Power Semiconductors" IEEE Transactions on Power electronics, Vol. 30, 6, url, With the advantage of high bandwidth and small insertion impedance, a current surface probe (CSP) used to measure switching current waveforms is presented in this letter. Its transfer impedance is characterized and validated by measuring an IGBT switching current that is compared with those obtained with a current probe (CP) and a Hall effect current probe (HECP). Furthermore, by comparing with a current shunt (CS) to measure a GaN-HEMT switching current, it is shown that CSP is able to measure a switching current of a few nanoseconds, while it brings no influence on transistor voltage waveform measurement. The obtained results show that, the use of CSP brings little parasitic inductances in the measurement circuit and it does not bring the connection of the ground to the power converter. |

16 | PIERQUIN Antoine, BRISSET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Optimisation process to solve multirate system" Przeglad Elektrotechniczny, Vol. 2015, N°. 6, p. 54-57, 6, url |

17 | HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Proper Generalized Decomposition Method Applied to Solve 3-D Magnetoquasi-Static Field Problems Coupling With External Electric Circuits" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 51, N°. 6, 6 |

18 | BELAHCEN Anouar, RASILO Paavo, NGUYEN Thu-Trang, CLENET Stéphane "Uncertainty Propagation of Iron Loss from Characterization Measurements to Computation of Electrical Machines" The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 34, N°. 3, p. 624-636, 5 |

19 | MADANI LAYADI Toufik, CHAMPENOIS Gérard, MOSTEFAI Mohammed, ABBES Dhaker "Lifetime estimation tool of lead–acid batteries for hybrid power sources design" Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, Vol. 54, p. 36–48, ISBN 10.1016/j.simpat.2015.03.001, 5, url, Generally, battery lifespan depends on the number of cycles and depth of discharge (DOD). Nevertheless, in a renewable hybrid power system, charge and discharge cycles are random and not regular. Therefore, it is important to develop an aging model suitable to this case. Thus, in this paper, a pertinent way for aging lead–acid batteries connected to a stand-alone multi-source renewable system has been developed. It is based on the Rain Flow method for counting cycles and considers instantaneous DOD and average temperature. In fact, for each functioning year, a classification of the number of cycles according to the DOD is done. Then, based on these data, the battery degradation rate is estimated so that it is possible to draw conclusions about battery lifespan. The method has been successfully applied to a multi-source power system simulated dynamically under Matlab/Simulink. This last takes into account with good accuracy several inputs and elements such as sun irradiation, wind speed, load profile, photovoltaic generator, wind turbine, and diesel generator. Results show the influence of the DOD and the batteries nominal capacity on their lifespan. A mean of eight years’ life is detected. Finally, a reasonable over-sizing may favor battery longevity. |

20 | CHEAYTANI Jalal, BENABOU Abdelkader, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, DESSOUDE Maxime, CHEVALLIER Loïc, HENNERON Thomas "End-Region Leakage Fluxes and Losses Analysis of Cage Induction Motors Using 3-D Finite-Element Method" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 51, N°. 3, 4, url, The stray load losses (SLLs) in electrical machines represent a non-negligible contribution of the total losses and a key point for an accurate evaluation of the energy efficiency of considered device. In this paper, one aspect of these SLLs, the end-region leakage fluxes and losses, is investigated and considered for the case of a high-power cage induction motor. The study is performed at locked rotor, no-load, and rated load conditions using a 3-D finite-element modeling approach. The influence of the leakage flux on the end-region conductive parts of the motor is analyzed together with the eddy current loss calculation. Finally, the SLLs are calculated and compared with the experimental measurements based on the IEEE standard 112-method B test. |

21 | FAKAM Mathias, HECQUET Michel, LANFRANCHI Vincent, RANDRIA Andry "Design and magnetic noise reduction of the Surface permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine using complex airgap permeance." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 51, N°. 4, 4, Nowadays, developing electric motorization for land vehicles is essential due to the crucial need to save energy. This paper presents the development of a tool used for optimal acoustic and electromechanical modeling whose highly accurate calculations and speed of resolution make it stand out from standard analytical and Finite Element models. By coupling an analytical model with static FE simulations, our ’hybrid’ model calculates a complex global air-gap permeance per area unit, to take into account magnetic wedge permeability, pre-slot height, and rotor shape. An unparalleled level of precision and speed of resolution is obtained for the computation of air-gap magnetic pressures. Several results of comparisons between acoustic measurements and simulations on a concentrated winding motor for different speeds are presented. |

22 | HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Model-Order Reduction of Multiple-Input Non-Linear Systems Based on POD and DEI Methods " IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 51, N°. 3, 4 |

23 | WANG Zifu, HENNERON Thomas, PIRIOU Francis, MIPO Jean-Claude "Energetic Mesh-to-Mesh Projection of Magnetic Fields With Respect to Nonlinear B-H Curves" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 51, N°. 3, 4 |

24 | VEZZOLI Eric, BEN MESSAOUD Wael, AMBERG Michel, GIRAUD Frédéric, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty "Physical and perceptual independence of ultrasonic vibration and electrovibration for friction modulation" IEEE - Transaction on Haptics, Vol. 8, N°. 2, p. 235 - 239, ISBN 10.1109/TOH.2015.2430353, 4, url, Two different principles are available to modulate the user perceived roughness of a surface: electrovibration and ultrasonic vibration of a plate. The former enhances the perceived friction coefficient and the latter reduces it. This paper will highlight the independence of the two effects on the physical and perceptual point of view to confirm the increased range of sensation and stimulation that can be supplied by the two coupled techniques to the users. Firstly, a tribometric analysis of the induced lateral force on the finger by the two coupled effects will be presented, then a study on the dynamic of the two effects will be reported. In the end, a psychophysical experiment on the perception of the two coupled techniques will be shown. |

25 | HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Error estimation of a proper orthogonal decomposition reduced model of a permanent magnet synchronous machine" IET Science, Measurement & Technology, 3 |

26 | ZHONG QC, MALINOWSKI M, FRANCOIS Bruno, ROMERO-CADAVAL E "Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Generation Plant as Alternative Energy Sources" IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, Vol. 9, p. 18 - 32, 3 |

27 | TITTARELLI Roberta, LE MENACH Yvonnick, CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, PIRIOU Francis, MOREAU Olivier, BOITEAU Olivier "Space-time residual-based a posteriori estimator for the Α-φ formulation in eddy current problems." Magnetics, IEEE Transactions, Vol. 51, N°. 3, 3, In this work, an a posteriori residual error estimator is presented for the 3D eddy current problem modeled by the space-time A-phi potential formulation. It is solved by the finite element method in space and the backward Euler scheme in time. Once the reliability as well as the efficiency of the estimator are established, two numerical tests are proposed: an analytical one in order to validate the theoretical results and a physical one in order to illustrate the performance for a real eddy current problem. |

28 | OFFERMANN Peter, MAC Duy Hung, NGUYEN Thu-Trang, CLENET Stéphane, DE GERSEM Herbert, HAMEYER Kay "Uncertainty Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis in Electrical Machines With Stochastically Varying Machine Parameters" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 51, N°. 3, 3 |

29 | ARNOUX Pierre-Hadrien, CAILLARD Pierre, GILLON Frédéric "Modeling Finite-Element Constraint to Run an Electrical Machine Design Optimization Using Machine Learning" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 51, N°. 3, 3, url |

30 | PIERQUIN Antoine, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane, BRISSET Stéphane "Model Order Reduction of Magnetoquasistatic Problems Based on POD and Arnoldi-based Krylov Methods " IEEE Transactions on Magnetics , Vol. 51, N°. 3, 3 |

31 | MARLIER Clément, VIDET Arnaud, IDIR Nadir "NIF-Based Frequency-Domain Modeling Method of Three-Wire Shielded Energy Cables for EMC Simulation" IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 57, N°. 1, 2, url, This paper focuses on the modeling method of energy cables used in power conversion systems, in the aim of EMC simulation and overvoltage analysis. Based on the node-to-node functions method, A simple frequency-domain model with a reduced number of equivalent impedances is considered and applied to three-wire shielded cables, along with a fast identification method based on a cascaded-cell model. Even though the model eventually includes nonphysical virtual impedances, simulation in frequency domain provides accurate results when compared to equivalent experimental measurements, for various cable lengths and in short simulation times. Time-domain waveforms are then extracted from frequency-domain simulation and confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method in a wide frequency range up to 50 MHz. Finally, a good match has been found between experimental and simulation results of voltage overshoots on a buck power converter system. |

32 | HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHENG Yuan, EL FASSI Mehdi "Dynamical and quasi-static multi-physical models of a diesel internal combustion engine using Energetic Macroscopic Representation" Energy Conversion and Management (Elsevier), Vol. 91, p. 280 - 291, 2, In the simulation of new vehicles, the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is generally modeled by a static map. This model yields the mechanical power and the fuel consumption. But some studies require the heat energy from the ICE to be considered (i.e. waste heat recovery, thermal regulation of the cabin). A dynamical multi-physical model of a diesel engine is developed to consider its heat energy. This model is organized using Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) in order to be interconnected to other various models of vehicle subsystems. An experimental validation is provided. Moreover a multi-physical quasi-static model is also derived. According to different modeling aims, a comparison of the dynamical and the quasi-static model is discussed in the case of the simulation of a thermal vehicle. These multi-physical models with different simulation time consumption provide good basis for studying the effects of the thermal energy on the vehicle behaviors, including the possibilities of waste heat recovery. |

33 | WANG Ye, BAYEM Herman, GIRALT-DEVANT Maria, SILVA Vera, GUILLAUD Xavier, FRANCOIS Bruno "Methods for Assessing Available Wind Primary Power Reserve" IEEE Transactions On Sustainable Energy, Vol. 6, p. 272 - 280, 1 |

34 | DIEULOT Jean-Yves, COLAS Frédéric, CHALAL Lamine, DAUPHIN-TANGUY Geneviève "Event-triggered variable horizon Supervisory Predictive control of hybrid power plants" Control Engineering Practice, Vol. 34, p. 61-67, 1, url, The supervision of a hybrid power plant, including solar panels, a gas microturbine and a storage unit operating under varying solar power profiles is considered. The Economic Supervisory Predictive controller assigns the power references to the controlled subsystems of the hybrid cell using a financial criterion. A prediction of the renewable sources power is embedded into the supervisor. Results deteriorate when the solar power is unsteady, owing to the inaccuracy of the predictions for a long-range horizon of 10 s. The receding horizon is switched between an upper and a lower value according to the amplitude of the solar power trend. Theoretical results show the relevance of horizon switching, according to a tradeoff between performance and prediction accuracy. Experimental results, obtained in a Hardware In the Loop (HIL) framework, show the relevance of the variable horizon approach. Power amplifiers allow us to simulate virtual components, such as a gas microturbine, and to blend their powers with that of real devices (storage unit, real solar panels). In this case, fuel savings, reaching 15%, obtained under unsteady operating conditions lead to a better overall performance of the hybrid cell. The overall savings obtained in the experiments amount to 12%. |

35 | WANG Ye, BAYEM Herman, GIRALT-DEVANT Maria, SILVA Vera, GUILLAUD Xavier "Methods for Assessing Available Wind Primary Power Reserve " IEEE Transaction on Sustainable Energy, Vol. 6, N°. 1, p. 272 - 280, 1, To ensure power system security with very high wind generation (WG) penetration, the participation of wind generators in primary frequency control is essential. Previous studies have shown the technical capability of wind turbines to participate in primary frequency regulation at a wind farm level. In order to analyze, the contribution of wind power to primary frequency regulation at system level one needs to quantify the amount of primary reserve from conventional sources that can be displaced. This amount of reserve depends on the aggregated variability of WG during each reserve provision time-interval. This paper presents a statistical approach to assess the impact of intrahour wind power variability on the volume of primary reserve that can be provided from WG. Furthermore, the effectiveness of different reserve allocation strategies is compared. The proposed approach is applied to a case study based on real-wind data measurements from the French island of Guadeloupe. Results show that for a small isolated system neglecting WG intrahourly variability leads to an overestimation of its contribution to primary reserve. |

1 | SAMARKANOV Dmitry, GILLON Frédéric, BROCHET Pascal, LALOY Daniel "Bi-objective optimization of induction machine using interval-based interactive algorithms" COMPEL, Vol. 33, N°. 3, p. 729 - 744 ,, 12, url, Purpose – Discrete highly constrained optimization of induction machine taking into consideration two objective functions: efficiency and total costs of production. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – Interactive and semi-interactive interval-based optimization methods were used. Two concepts of multi-objective discrete optimization were proposed. Findings – Proposed methodology and algorithms allow decision maker (DM) participate in the process of optimal design and therefore decrease the total time of optimization process. The search procedure is straightforward and it does not require special skills of DM. Presented methods were successfully versified for the problem of optimal design with discrete variables. Research limitations/implications – Three interval algorithms suitable for inverse problems are researched and verified. It generally can be used for multi-objective problems. The dominance principles for interval boxes are showed in the paper. Proposed algorithms are based on the idea of hybridization of exact and evolutionary methods. Practical implications – Proposed approaches were successfully implemented within computer-aided application which is used by manufacturer of high power induction machine. Originality/value – The concept of pareto-domination using the interval boxes can be treated as original. The paper researched several elimination rules and discusses the difference between different approaches. |

2 | LALOUNI S., REKIOUA Djamila, IDJDARENE Kassa, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm "An improved MPPT algorithm for wind energy conversion system’" J. Electrical Systems, Vol. 10, N°. 4, p. 484-494, 12 |

3 | CUELLAR Carlos, IDIR Nadir, BENABOU Abdelkader, MARGUERON Xavier "High frequency current probes for common-mode impedance measurements of power converters under operating conditions" EPE Journal, Vol. 24, N°. 4, p. 48-55, 12, Two current probes are designed with the appropriate magnetic material in order to make impedance measurements in High Frequency (HF) using the Current Injection Method (CIM). These probes are then used to measure the common-mode impedance of power converters in real-operating conditions. The characterization of this impedance is required for a correct EMI filter design. In this paper, a simple formulation of the probe transfer impedance, based on S-parameters, is proposed. These probes allow improving the accuracy of impedance measurements in a wide frequency range, up to 100 MHz. The measured impedances of the power converter are then applied in the design of the common mode EMI filter under real operation conditions. The obtained insertion losses of the filter are finally compared with those measured under 50Ω-50Ω |

4 | HANCHEV H., COLAS Frédéric, LAZAROV Vladimir, FRANCOIS Bruno "Emission Reduction and Economical Optimization of an Microgrid Operation Including Dispatched PV-Based Active Generators" IEEE Transactions On Sustainable Energy, Vol. 5, N°. 4, p. 1755 - 1796, 10 |

5 | SILVA Luis, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DE ANGELO Christian, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty "Coupling Bond Graph and Energetic Macroscopic Representation for Electric Vehicle Simulation" Mechatronics Elsevier, Vol. 24, N°. 7, p. 906-913, 10, url, This paper deals with the analysis and simulation of an electric vehicle, coupling functional and structural approaches in the same simulation environment. The Bond Graph model, the structural approach, is ﬁrst deduced from the physical system, which in turn produces a direct correspondence between the system and its model. The control structure is then easily deduced from the Energetic Macroscopic Representa- tion, the functional approach, of the vehicle using a systematic procedure. Simulation results are provided in order to analyze the performance of the closed-loop system |

6 | SANDULESCU Alexandru-Paul, MEINGUET Fabien, KESTELYN Xavier, SEMAIL Eric, BRUYERE Antoine "Control Strategies for Open-End Winding Drives Operating in the Flux-Weakening Region" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 29, N°. 9, p. 13, 9, This paper presents and compares control strategies for three-phase open-end winding drives operating in the flux-weakening region. A six-leg inverter with a single dc-link is associated with the machine in order to use a single energy source. With this topology, the zero-sequence circuit has to be considered since the zero-sequence current can circulate in the windings. Therefore, conventional over-modulation strategies are not appropriate when the machine enters in the flux-weakening region. A few solutions dealing with the zero-sequence circuit have been proposed in literature. They use a modified space vector modulation or a conventional modulation with additional voltage limitations. The paper describes the aforementioned strategies and then a new strategy is proposed. This new strategy takes into account the magnitudes and phase angles of the voltage harmonic components. This yields better voltage utilization in the dq frame. Furthermore, inverter saturation is avoided in the zero-sequence frame and therefore zero-sequence current control is maintained. Three methods are implemented on a test bed composed of a three-phase permanent-magnet synchronous machine, a six-leg inverter and a hybrid DSP/FPGA controller. Experimental results are presented and compared for all strategies. A performance analysis is conducted as regards the region of operation and the machine parameters. |

7 | CUELLAR Carlos, BENABOU Abdelkader, IDIR Nadir "Characterization and modeling of hysteresis for magnetic materials used in EMI filters of power converters" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 29, N°. 9, p. 4911-4920, 9, The magnetic material when designing EMI filter determines the inductance value and the parasitic elements that influence the insertion loss effectiveness of the filter. Moreover, the EMI filter characterization is usually realized at low power levels (low current and low voltage). When the EMI filter is subjected to higher currents through its coils, the principal characteristics of the filter (inductance variation with current and frequency) are modified. To account for these variations in the design step, it is useful to take into account the hysteresis model that represents the inductive and dissipative effects. Therefore, in this paper, an approach combining a magnetic hysteresis model together with a concept of material capacitance is proposed. The model is identified from a single turn of flat copper ribbon (STFC) experimental setup. Then, the experimental data are modeled with the proposed hysteretic and capacitive material behavior model (HCM) that is implemented in an equivalent circuit modeling approach, accounting for both the magnetic behavior law together with the "material capacitance". The robustness of the proposed approach is evaluated by comparison and validation with the experiment results, showing good representation of the inductive and partially the dissipative effects |

8 | MESLEM Nacim, HIEU LE Vu Tuan, LABARRE Cécile, KOTNY Jean-Luc, IDIR Nadir "Set-membership methods applied to identify high-frequency elements of EMI filters" Control Engineering Practice Journal, Science Direct, ELSEVIER, Vol. 29, p. 13-22, 8, url, In order to enhance the performance of electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters, it is necessary to identify high-frequency parasitic elements of their passive components, mainly those related to the coupled inductors. Motivated by this issue, in this work a realistic high-frequency model is proposed for the coupled inductors. Actually, using interval analysis in particular the forward–backward contractor, a set-membership algorithm has been developed to estimate systematically the parasitic elements linked with the magnetic components. The main advantages of this algorithm compared to the fitting methods are the values of the estimated parameters are always positive and the corrupted data are taken into account. The comparison of the simulation results and the experimental data allows us to validate the proposed method. |

9 | BOUHALI Omar, RIZOUG Nassim, FRANCOIS Bruno "Equivalent Matrix Structure Modeling and Control of a Three-Phase Flying Capacitor Multilevel Inverter" IET Power Electronics, Vol. 7, p. 1755 - 1796, 7 |

10 | AMANCI Adrian, GIRAUD Frédéric, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, AMBERG Michel, DAWSON Francis "Analysis of the energy harvesting performance of a piezoelectric bender outside its resonance" Sensors & Actuators , Vol. 217, p. 129-138, 7, url, When the frequency of the source of vibration of a piezolectric generator is significantly different from its eigenfrequency, the dielectric power losses become prominent and decrease the amount of power which is practically harvested. For off-resonance vibrating frequencies, the optimal operating conditions can be obtained with a Maximum Power Point Tracking method. This paper introduces complex phasors in the study of power conversion for piezoelectric generators. These complex phasors are used to describe three strategies which help simplify the tracking of the optimal generator output power for vibration frequencies which are away from resonance. Experimental results obtained on a prototype illustrate and confirm the approach with the phasor approaches illustrate and confirm the success of the proposed optimal power tracking strategies. Finally, we show that the efficiency results of each strategy depend on whether they are used inside or outside a frequency bandwidth around the eigenfrequency, and that the length of this bandwidth depends on the excitation amplitude. |

11 | M’BOUNGUI Gaston, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, GIRAUD Frédéric, JIMOH Adisa "Development of a novel plane piezoelectric actuator using Hamilton’s principle based model and Hertz contact theory" Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 217, p. 116-123, 7, url, A simple device based on friction coefﬁcient control was designed as a solution to the lack of compact- ness and simplicity encountered in the number of force feedback interfaces. The structure comprises a 64 × 38 × 3 mm copper-beryllium plate on which well-adjusted polarized piezoceramics are glued. The plate stands on four legs, each of which has a spherical end. By controlling the drive voltage, friction force may be varied as required by a user who moves the device on a ﬂat surface, as he or she would do with a normal mouse. This adds the possibility of rendering simulated forces from objects manipulated on a PC screen. Friction forces obtained using Hertz contact theory compare well with the ones measured on an experimental setup, which demonstrate the validity of the approach with regard to force feedback application. |

12 | BOUHALI Omar, RIZOUG Nassim, FRANCOIS Bruno "Line-to-line Voltage Space Vector Modulation for NPC Multilevel Converter with DC-link capacitor voltage balancing using reduntant vectors" Journal of Electric Power Components and Systems, Vol. 42, p. 1070 - 1086, 6 |

13 | MARTIN Florent, ZAÏM Mohamed El Hadi, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, BERNARD Nicolas "Improved Analytical Determination of Eddy Current Losses in Surface Mounted Permanent Magnets of Synchronous Machine" IEEE Trans Mag., Vol. 50, N°. 6, 6 |

14 | SAAD Hani, DENNETIERE Sébastien, MAHSEREDJIAN Jean, DELARUE Philippe, GUILLAUD Xavier "Modular Multilevel Converter Models for Electromagnetic Transients" IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 29, N°. 3, p. 1481-1489, 6, Modular multilevel Converters(MMCs) may contain numerous insulated-gate bipolar transistors. The modeling of such converters for electromagnetic transient-type (EMT-type) simulations is complex. Detailed models used in MMC-HVDC simulations may require very large computing times. Simplified and averaged models have been proposed in the past to overcome this problem. In this paper, existing averaged and simplified models are improved in order to increase their range of applications. The models are compared and analyzed for different transient events on an MMC-HVDC system. |

15 | MEINGUET Fabien, SEMAIL Eric, KESTELYN Xavier, GYSELINCK Johan "A change-detection algorithm for short-circuit fault detection in closed-loop AC drives" IET Electric Power Applications, Vol. 8, N°. 5, p. 12, 5, url, This paper deals with an on-line method for turn-to-turn short-circuit fault detection in low-voltage permanent-magnet synchronous machine drives. Due to the closed-loop control, the fault effects are reflected in the voltage. Therefore, an appropriate diagnostic index is proposed, which is derived from the positive- and negative-sequences of the voltage references. These sequences are obtained in the time domain via adaptive filters, which require only a few calculations. To increase the sensitivity to the fault, the algorithm is only applied to a part of the voltage references, i.e. the output of the proportional-integral controllers. Further, the cumulative-sum algorithm is introduced to cope with changes of small magnitudes. This algorithm allows a change of a fault index to be detected and can be used as a decision system. The resulting fault detection scheme is computationally cheap and can be embedded in the control unit. Simulations and experimental results validate the proposed method in steady state and the performances under non-stationary operating conditions are also investigated. |

16 | BEN AYED Ramzi, BRISSET Stéphane "n-level output space mapping for electromagnetic design optimization" COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 33, N°. 3, p. 868 - 878, 5, Optimal design with the finite element models is often expensive in terms of the computation time. The space-mapping technique allows benefiting both the fast calculation of the coarse model and the accuracy of the fine one. In this paper, an n-level output space-mapping algorithm is proposed. The results show that the proposed algorithm allows saving computation time compared to traditional 2-level output space mapping algorithm |

17 | FRATILA Radu, BENABOU Abdelkader, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, MIPO Jean-Claude "A Combined Experimental and Finite Element Analysis Method for the Estimation of Eddy-Current Loss in NdFeB Magnets" Sensors, Vol. 14, N°. 5, p. 8505-8512, 5, url, NdFeB permanent magnets (PMs) are widely used in high performance electrical machines, but their relatively high conductivity subjects them to eddy current losses that can lead to magnetization loss. The Finite Element (FE) method is generally used to quantify the eddy current loss of PMs, but it remains quite difficult to validate the accuracy of the results with complex devices. In this paper, an experimental test device is used in order to extract the eddy current losses that are then compared with those of a 3D FE model. |

18 | CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, TITTARELLI Roberta "Space-time residual-based a posteriori estimators for the A−φ magnetodynamic formulation of the Maxwell system." Comput. Methods Appl. Math., Vol. 14, N°. 4, p. 429--460, 5, url, In this paper, an a posteriori residual error estimator is proposed for the A−ϕ magnetodynamic Maxwell system given in its potential and space/time formulation and solved by a finite element method. The reliability as well as the efficiency of the estimator are established for several norms. Then, numerical tests are performed, allowing to illustrate the obtained theoretical results. |

19 | ABULIZI Maimaitrireyimu, PENG Ling, LI Yongdong, FRANCOIS Bruno "Performance analysis of a controller for doubly-fed induction generators based wind turbines against parameter variations" International review of Electrical Engineering (IREEE), Vol. 9, N°. 2, p. 262 - 269, 4 |

20 | GONG Jinlin, ASLAN Bassel, SEMAIL Eric, GILLON Frédéric "High Speed Functionality Optimization of Five-Phase Machine Using 3rd Harmonic Current" COMPEL, Vol. 33, N°. 3, p. 14, 4, url, Some surrogate-assisted optimization techniques are applied in order to improve the performances of a 5-phase Permanent Magnet (PM) machine in the context of a complex model requiring computation time. An optimal control of four independent currents is proposed in order to minimize the total losses with the respect of functioning constraints. Moreover, some geometrical parameters are added to the optimization process allowing a co-design between control and dimensioning. The effectiveness of the method allows solving the challenge which consists in taking into account inside the control strategy the eddy-current losses in magnets and iron. In fact, magnet losses are a critical point to protect the machine from demagnetization in flux-weakening region. But these losses, which highly depend on magnetic state of the machine, must be calculated by Finite Element Method (FEM) to be accurate. The FEM has the drawback to be time consuming. It is why, a direct optimization using FEM is critical. The response surface method (RSM) and the Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) algorithm consist in approximating the FEM by a surrogate model used directly or indirectly in the optimization process. The optimal results proved the interest of the both methods in this context |

21 | M’BOUNGUI Gaston, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, GIRAUD Frédéric "Vibration Control and Preliminary evaluation of a piezo-electric actuator for use as a force-feedback device" European Journal on Electrical Engineering, Vol. 17, N°. 1/2, p. 9-26, 4 |

22 | AMDOUNI Imen, EL AMRAOUI Lilia, GILLON Frédéric, BENREJEB Mohamed, BROCHET Pascal "Multiobjective approach developed for optimizing the dynamic behavior of incremental linear actuators" COMPEL, Vol. 33, N°. 3, p. 953-964, 4, url, Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop an optimal approach for optimizing the dynamic behavior of incremental linear actuators. Design/methodology/approach – First, a parameterized design model is built. Second, a dynamic model is implemented. This model takes into account the thrust force computed from a finite element model. Finally, the multiobjective optimization approach is applied to the dynamic model to optimize control as well as design parameters. Findings – The Pareto front resulting from the optimization approach (or the parallel optimization approach,) is better than the Pareto, which is obtained from the only application of MultiObjective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) method (or parallel MOGA with the same number of optimization approach objective function evaluations). The only use of MOGA can reach the region near an optimal Pareto front, but it consumes more computing time than the multiobjective optimization approach. At each flowchart stage, parallelization leads to a significant reduction of computing time which is halved when using two-core machine. Originality/value – In order to solve the multiobjective problem, a hybrid algorithm based on MOGA is developed |

23 | BERBECEA Alexandru Claudiu, GILLON Frédéric, BROCHET Pascal "Multi-level design of an isolation transformer using collaborative optimization" COMPEL, Vol. 33, N°. 3, p. 1038-1050, 4, url, Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present an application of a multidisciplinary multi-level design optimization methodology for the optimal design of a complex device from the field of electrical engineering throughout discipline-based decomposition. The considered benchmark is a single-phase low voltage safety isolation transformer. Design/methodology/approach – The multidisciplinary optimization of a safety isolation transformer is addressed within this paper. The bi-level collaborative optimization (CO) strategy is employed to coordinate the optimization of the different disciplinary analytical models of the transformer (no-load and full-load electromagnetic models and thermal model). The results represent the joint decision of the three distinct disciplinary optimizers involved in the design process, under the coordination of the CO’s master optimizer. In order to validate the proposed approach, the results are compared to those obtained using a classical single-level optimization method – sequential quadratic programming – carried out using a multidisciplinary feasible formulation for handling the evaluation of the coupling model of the transformer. Findings – Results show a good convergence of the CO process with the analytical modeling of the transformer, with a reduced number of coordination iterations. However, a relatively important number of disciplinary models evaluations were required by the local optimizers. Originality/value – The CO multi-level methodology represents a new approach in the field of electrical engineering. The advantage of this approach consists in that it integrates decisions from different teams of specialists within the optimal design process of complex systems and all exchanges are managed within a unique coordination process. |

24 | MAYET Clément, POUGET Julien, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter "Influence of an energy storage system on the energy consumption of a diesel-electric locomotive" IEEE Transactions on vehicular technology, Vol. 63, N°. 3, p. 1032-1040, 3, This paper studies the influence of an Energy Storage System (ESS) on the fuel consumption of a diesel-electric locomotive. First, an energetic model of a diesel-electric locomotive is established using Energetic Macroscopic Representation. An inversion-based control is deduced, and the model is validated by experimental results on a real locomotive. Secondly, from this validated model, a battery/supercapacitor ESS is added in simulation in order to study the benefit of the hybridization before integration on the real vehicle. The simulations show that a simple energy management based on a frequency approach allows the reduction of 25% the fuel consumption on a real drive cycle. |

25 | ASLAN Bassel, SEMAIL Eric, LEGRANGER Jérome "General Analytical Model of Magnet Average Eddy-Current Volume Losses for Comparison of Multi-phase PM Machines with Concentrated Winding" IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 29, N°. 1, p. 11, 3, url, this paper studies magnet eddy-current losses in permanent magnet (PM) machines with concentrated winding. First of all, space harmonics of magnetomotive force (MMF) and their influence on magnet losses in electrical machines are investigated. Secondly, analytical model of magnet volume losses is developed by studying the interaction between MMF harmonics wavelengths and magnet pole dimensions. Different cases of this interaction are exhibited according to the ratio between each harmonic wavelength and magnet pole width. Then various losses sub-models are deduced. Using this analytical model, magnet volume losses for many Slots/Poles combinations of 3, 5, and 7 phase machines with concentrated winding are compared. This comparison leads to classify combinations into different families depending on their magnet losses level. Finally, in order to verify the theoretical study, Finite Element models are built and simulation results are compared with analytical calculations. |

26 | ABBES Dhaker, MARTINEZ A, CHAMPENOIS G, ROBYNS Benoît "Real time supervision for a hybrid renewable power system emulator" Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, Elsevier, Vol. 42, p. 53-72, 3, This paper is focused on the design and the implementation of a hybrid PV-wind power system with batteries. It aims to emulate the behavior of a hybrid power system in order to face load consumption variations. Final system includes relevant contributions such as quality of emulator (a large number of parameters are considered); capacity to study various impacts simultaneously, a fast dynamic and a set of experimental tests that have been achieved and validated with a test bench. Moreover, a relevant supervision strategy based on currents control and batteries State Of Charge (SOC) estimation has been successfully performed despite simplicity of converter controls. |

27 | HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Model Order Reduction of Non-Linear Magnetostatic Problems Based on POD and DEI Methods" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 2 |

28 | MAYET Clément, HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, VERHILLE Jean-Noël, CHATTOT Eric, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty "Comparison of different models and simulation approaches for the energetic study of a subway" IEEE Transactions on vehicular technology, Vol. 63, N°. 2, p. 556-565, 2, This paper aims to compare different models and simulation approaches for an energetic simulation of an automatic subway. For this purpose, several models are carried out from a dynamic model which is validated by comparison with experimental measurements. Furthermore, two different simulation approaches are compared: backward and forward approaches. A simplified model is obtained and allows the reduction of the simulation time by 96 compared to the dynamic model by keeping an accuracy of more than 99 %. |

29 | DULAR Patrick, TANG Zuqi, LE MENACH Yvonnick, CREUSE Emmanuel, PIRIOU Francis "Comparison of Residual and Hierarchical Finite Element Error Estimators in Eddy Current Problems" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 50, N°. 2, p. 501-504, 2, url, The finite element computation of eddy current problems introduces numerical error. This error can only be estimated. Among all error estimators (EEs) already developed, two estimators, called residual and hierarchical EEs, proven to be reliable and efficient, are theoretically and numerically compared. Both estimators show similar behaviors and locations of the error. |

30 | HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Model order reduction applied to the numerical study of electrical motor based on POD method taking into account rotation movement " International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields, 2 |

31 | MAC Duy Hung, CLENET Stéphane "A Posteriori Error Estimation for Stochastic Static Problems" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 50, N°. 2, 2 |

32 | BUENO Marie-Ange, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, AMBERG Michel, GIRAUD Frédéric "A simulation from a tactile device to render the touch of textile fabrics: a preliminary study on velvet" Textile Research Journal, Vol. 84, N°. 13, p. 1428-1440, 2, url, In the field of e-commerce or virtual prototyping of textile fabrics and garments, tactile stimulators could be very pertinent and useful tools for the industry. The challenge is to stimulate the human hand using a tactile device in order to simulate the textile fabric touch. The principle of the tactile device is described. The kinds of fabrics investigated are pile fabrics, such as velvet. In this study, the illusion of pile is given when touching the smooth plate of the tactile device by modulating the coefficient of friction between the plate and the finger during an active movement. The control signal is qualitatively designed from some tribological features identified in this study as velvet fabric characteristics. The influence of each tribological feature on the tactile rendering is studied via psychophysical studies comparing real and simulated fabrics. The best rendering needs a simulation with three specific features: a coefficient of friction, which depends on the finger movement direction; a transition phase for the change of movement direction; and small amplitude variations of the coefficient of friction with about one millimeter wavelength. |

33 | PIERQUIN Antoine, BRISSET Stéphane, HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Benefits of Waveform Relaxation Method and Output Space Mapping for the Optimization of Multirate Systems" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 50, N°. 2, p. 653-656, 2, We present an optimization problem that requires the modeling of a multirate system composed of subsystems with different time constants. We use waveform relaxation method (WRM) in order to simulate such a system, but computation time can be penalizing in an optimization context. Thus, we apply output space mapping (OSM) that uses several models of the system to accelerate optimization. WRM is one of the models used in OSM. |

34 | FRATILA Mircea, BENABOU Abdelkader, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, DESSOUDE Maxime "Calculation of iron loss in Solid Rotor Induction Machine using FEM" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 50, N°. 2, 2 |

35 | WANG Zifu, TANG Zuqi, HENNERON Thomas, PIRIOU Francis, MIPO Jean-Claude "Energetic Galerkin Projection of Electromagnetic Fields Between Different Meshes" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 50, N°. 2, p. 613-616, 2, url, Mesh-to-mesh field transfer arises frequently in finite element computations. Typical applications may concern remeshing, multigrid methods, domain decomposition and multi-physics problems. For electromagnetic fields, one of the essential constraints in such transfers is to conserve energetic quantities such as the magnetic energy and the joule heating. Within the framework of Galerkin projection on overlapping domains, we introduce the definition of energetic norms for electromagnetic fields. The corresponding formulations we propose, provide energy-conserving projection of electromagnetic fields between different meshes. |

36 | NGUYEN Thanh Hung, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, ABBA Gabriel, BIGOT Régis "Modeling of Forging Processes Assisted by Piezoelectric Actuators: Principles and Experimental Validation" IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 50, N°. 1, p. 244-252, 1, This paper presents the modeling of forging processes assisted by vibrations. A piezoelectric actuator is used to generate speciﬁc low-frequency vibration waveforms superimposed to the forging motion. Experimental results show a reduction of the forging load during upsetting tests. However, the appropriate waveforms and their inﬂuence on the forging load are still poorly understood. Moreover, the requirements of actuators and the design of the control should be known in advance. Therefore, there is a need for simulation to predict those issues. Due to the complexity of the interactions between the different components of the system, a complete model of the process is proposed. It is developed using an energetic macroscopic representation to preserve causality throughout themodeling. Simulation results are then compared with representative experimental results. |

37 | GIRAUD Frédéric, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, AMBERG Michel, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty " Vector control method applied to a traveling wave in a finite beam" IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, ferroelectricity and Frequency Control (TUFFC), Vol. 61, N°. 1, p. 147-158, 1, url, This paper presents the closed-loop control of exciters to produce a traveling wave in a finite beam. This control is based on a dynamical modeling of the system established in a rotating reference frame. This method allows dynamic and independent control of the phase and amplitude of two vibration modes. The condition to obtain the traveling wave is written in this rotating frame, and requires having two vibration modes with the same amplitude, and imposing a phase shift of 90?? between them. The advantage of the method is that it allows easy implementation of a closed loop control that can handle parameter drift of the system, after a temperature rise, for example. The modeling is compared with measurement on an experimental test bench which also implements real-time control. We managed to experimentally obtain a settling time of 250 ms for the traveling wave, and a standing wave ratio (SWR) of 1.3. |

38 | VINOT Emmanuel, TRIGUI Rochdi, CHENG Yuan, ESPANET Christophe, BOUSCAYROL Alain "Improvement of an EVT-based HEV using dynamic programming" IEEE transactions on Vehicular Technology , Vol. 63, N°. 1, p. 40-49, 1 |

39 | MAC Duy Hung, CLENET Stéphane, BEDDEK Karim, CHEVALLIER Loïc, KORECKI Julien "Influence of uncertainties on the B(H) curves on the flux linkage of a turboalternator" International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields, Vol. 27, N°. 3, p. 385-399, 1, url, In this paper, we analyze the influence of the uncertainties on the behavior constitutive laws of ferromagnetic materials on the behavior of a turboalternator. A simple stochastic model of anhysteretic nonlinear B(H) curve is proposed for the ferromagnetic yokes of the stator and the rotor. The B(H) curve is defined by five random parameters. We quantify the influence of the variability of these five parameters on the flux linkage of one phase of the stator winding depending on the excitation current I. The influence of each parameter is analyzed via the Sobol indices. With this analysis, we can determine the most influential parameters for each state of magnetization (according to the level of I) and investigate where the characterization process of the B(H) curve should focus to improve the accuracy of the computed flux linkage. |

40 | SAAD Hani, GUILLAUD Xavier, MAHSEREDJIAN Jean, DENNETIERE Sébastien "MMC Capacitor Voltage Decoupling and Balancing Controls " IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 30, N°. 2, p. 704 - 712, 1, A modular multilevel converter control system, based on converter energy storage, is proposed in this paper for two different control modes: active power and dc voltage. The proposed control system decouples the submodule (SM) capacitor voltages from the dc bus voltage. One of the practical applications is the management of active redundant SMs. A practical HVDC system with 401-level MMCs, including 10% redundancy in MMC SMs, is used for validating and demonstrating the advantages of the proposed control system. This paper also presents a novel capacitor voltage balancing control based on max – min functions. It is used to drastically reduce the number of switchings for each SM and enhances computational efficiency. |

1 | WANG Zifu, HENNERON Thomas, DULAR Patrick, MIPO Jean-Claude, PIRIOU Francis "Comparison of Implementation Techniques for Galerkin Projection Between Different Meshes" Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields, 12, To solve multi-physics problems, weak coupling of finite element calculations can be carried out: the subproblems of which the physical nature differs, are solved separately on their own meshes. In this case, Galerkin projection provides useful tool to ensure the transfer of physical fields between different meshes. In terms of implementation, the Galerkin projection system can be either accurately assembled over the intersection of two meshes or approximately integrated over the target mesh. This paper describes and compares these two implementation techniques for the Galerkin projection. |

2 | SARABI Siyamak, KEFSI Laid, MERDASSI Asma, ROBYNS Benoît "Supervision of Plug-in Electric Vehicles connected to the Electric Distribution Grids" International Journal of Electrical Energy, Vol. 1, N°. 4, p. 256-263, ISBN ISSN 2301-3656, 12, url, In recent years, automobile industries focus on the electrification and hybridization of the vehicle’s production. The number of Plug in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) are significantly increasing through the next years. These raises impose negative impacts on the electrical power grids. In this study, a supervision system is proposed with the aim of reducing the power losses and voltage profile improvement, thanks to a dynamic programming optimization algorithm. V2G (Vehicle to Grid) technology is introduced as benefits of vehicle electrification for electrical distribution grids. |

3 | TANG Zuqi, LE MENACH Yvonnick, CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, PIRIOU Francis "Comparison of Residual and Equilibrated Error Estimators for FEM Applied to Magnetostatic Problems" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 49, N°. 12, 12, url, In finite element computations, the choice of the mesh is crucial to obtain accurate solutions. In order to evaluate the quality of the mesh, a posteriori error estimators can be used. In this paper, we develop residual-based error estimators for magnetostatic problems with both classical formulations in term of potentials used, as well as the equilibrated error estimator. We compare their behaviors on some numerical applications, to understand the interest of each of them in the remeshing process. |

4 | LI Ke, VIDET Arnaud, IDIR Nadir "Multi-Probe Measurement Method for Voltage-Dependent Capacitances of Power Semiconductor Devices in High Voltage" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 28, N°. 11, p. 5414-5422, 11, url, The characterization of voltage-dependent capacitances of power semiconductor devices (diode, MOSFET, IGBT etc.) is very important for modeling their dynamic performances. A measurement method using two current probes has been developed to characterize inter-electrode capacitances of power devices while isolating the measurement devices from the high-voltage DC bias power source. Ciss and Coss are shown to be accurately measured while Crss is not convincing enough. Then an additional current probe is added to improve the method. Crss is shown to be well characterized by this three-current-probe method. This method has been validated using various technologies of semiconductor devices including silicon MOSFET and silicon carbide JFET. The inter-electrode capacitances of power devices can be safely and accurately measured with this multi-probe method even in high voltage. |

5 | RAMAROTAFIKA Rindra, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane "Stochastic Jiles-Atherton model accounting for soft magnetic material variability" The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 32, N°. 5, p. 1679 - 1691, 10, Classically the magnetic material models are considered with a deterministic approach. Nevertheless, when submitted to the fabrication process, the magnetic core properties are negatively impacted and may be subject to variability during the process. This variability can be of such importance that the performances of the final device (electrical machine) will also present a noticeable variability. The aim of this research is to develop a stochastic model of the magnetic behaviour law of slinky stators used in claw pole generators. The proposed methodology is general and can be applied to other physical properties of electrical devices. |

6 | ZENG Tao, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty, GIRAUD Frédéric, AMBERG Michel "Contribution of Slip Cue to Curvature Perception through Active and Dynamic Touch" IEEE Transactions on Haptics, Vol. 6, N°. 4, p. 408-416, 10, —Haptic perception of curvature depends largely on the kind of touch. An active and dynamic touch is considered to be the most natural way of exploring. In this study, we have designed and evaluated a kinematic platform for curvature perception through active and dynamic touch. This platform can independently orient, elevate, and translate a flat plate; by exploring forward and backward along the flat plate with a finger, users can achieve curvature feeling of extruded objects. The mechanism of platform and the way of touch have maximally respected the cues for curvature perception, especially the slip cue. Psychophysical evaluation demonstrated that the discrimination threshold of curvature for virtual shapes is close to that for real shapes, and the virtual shape is felt equally curved as the real one. The curvature perception of mono-convex surfaces was then expanded to perception of more complex surfaces: large textures, which have a sinusoidal profile. The evaluation has accessed the correspondence between the virtual and real large textures. |

7 | HENNERON Thomas, CLENET Stéphane "Model order reduction of quasi-static problems based on POD and PGD approaches" EPJ AP, Vol. 64, N°. 2, 10 |

8 | LETROUVE Tony, LHOMME Walter, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DOLLINGER Nicolas "Control validation of Peugeot 3∞8 Hybrid4 vehicle using a reduced-scale power HIL simulation" Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, Vol. 8, N°. 5, p. 1227-1233, 9, (common paper of L2EP Lille, and PSA Peugeot Citroën within MEGEVH, French network on HEVs, extended version of the Award Paper Prize of IEEE-VPPC 2012) The new engineering challenges lead to a control of a vehicle more and more complex. To tackle this issue, Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation is used in the development of real-time embedded systems. In this paper, the control of a double parallel hybrid vehicle is validated using a reduced power HIL simulation. A graphical description is used in order to organize the emulation and control. Some experimental results of a versatile testbed are given for the Peugeot 3∞8 HYbrid4. |

9 | CAMBLONG Haritza, VECHIU Ionel, GUILLAUD Xavier, ETXEBERRIA A, KRECKELBERGH S "Wind turbine controller comparison on an island grid in terms of frequency control and mechanical stress" Renewable Energy, Vol. 63, p. 37-45, 9, The aim of this paper is to present a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller designed with two main objectives: to allow the contribution of wind turbines (WTs) to the primary frequency regulation of an island power system, and to reduce the WTs drive-train mechanical stresses. The designed LQG1_CPC_Track controller is compared, in terms of the mentioned objectives, to a more classical controller containing two uncoupled control loops. The comparison is carried out in a simulation model of the Guadeloupian island power system taken as a case study. The model is implemented in Eurostag software. Simulation results show that the contribution of both controllers to the primary frequency regulation is satisfactory, and that the LQG1_CPC_Track allows reducing drive-train mechanical stresses significantly. Thus, thanks to the LQG1_Track, on top of allowing the integration of more wind energy in the grid with the contribution to primary frequency regulation, WTs would have less maintenance costs and could be manufactured with cheaper material. |

10 | BRACIKOWSKI Nicolas, ROSSI Mathieu, HECQUET Michel, GILLON Frédéric "Multi-physics design rules using lumped models for a permanent magnet synchronous machine" International journal of applied electromagnetics and mechanics, IJAEM,, Vol. 43, N°. 1, 9 |

11 | CHENG Yuan, BOUSCAYROL Alain, TRIGUI Rochdi, ESPANET Christophe, CUI Shumei "Field weakening control of a PM electric variable transmission for HEV" Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, Vol. 8, N°. 5, p. 1096-1106, 9, Automotive engineers and researchers have proposed different topologies for series–parallel hybrid electric vehicles (SP-HEVs). The Toyota Hybrid System (THS) is the best known SP-HEV-based vehicle, but alternative solutions, such as electric variable transmission (EVT), have been also proposed. An efficient comparison between these different solutions is a key point to estimate the added value of each topology. This paper presents the application of optimal control to two series–parallel hybrid architectures for efficiency assessment purposes. The dynamic programming method is applied to the THS and to a virtual hybrid vehicle with an EVT. The way to take into account the supplementary degree of freedom provided by the decoupling of the wheels and the engine in both topologies is presented. The optimal fuel consumption is then compared on different driving cycles and brings out an overconsumption of the EVT topology. Then, a parametric study shows that inserting an appropriate gear ratio on the internal-combustion-engine (ICE) shaft can improve the EVT efficiency that becomes close to the THS efficiency. |

12 | WANG Ye, DELILLE Gauthier, BAYEM Herman, GUILLAUD Xavier, FRANCOIS Bruno "High Wind Power Penetration in Isolated Power Systems—Assessment of Wind Inertial and Primary Frequency Responses" IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 28, N°. 3, p. 2412-2420, 8, Grid operational challenges are significant to increase securely the wind penetration level. New embedded control functions are therefore required in order to make participate wind generators in power system management. In this paper the implementation of inertial response and primary frequency control in a wind turbine controller are investigated. Main factors affecting the performances of the frequency regulation are identified and characterized. The influence of control parameters and the turbine operating point on the inertial response are analyzed through obtained performances in an islanded power system. The combined control scheme using both controllers is also developed and the potential of the obtained grid service at partial load is discussed. |

13 | RAMAROTAFIKA Rindra, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane "Stochastic modeling of anhysteretic magnetic curve using random inter-dependant coefficients" International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (IJAEM), Vol. 43, N°. 1-2, p. 151-159, 7, url, When modeling a system subject to uncertainties, a fundamental aspect is the stochastic modeling of the input parameters of the model. Several calculation and analysis steps have to be considered, and can be found in the literature. In this paper, after presenting such steps, these are applied for the modeling of the variability of the magnetic behavior law related to a set of slinky stator samples, issued from the same production chain. The probabilistic model of the parameters is therefore validated using a statistical test and a classical Monte Carlo simulation. The importance of taking account of the dependency structure between the parameters is then emphasized, as it may modify significantly the results related to the validation of the model. |

14 | FRATILA Mircea, BENABOU Abdelkader, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, DESSOUDE Maxime "Improved iron loss calculation for non-centered minor loops" The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 32, N°. 4, 7 |

15 | FRATILA Mircea, RAMAROTAFIKA Rindra, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm "Stochastic post processing calculation of iron losses -Application to a PMSM" The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (COMPEL), Vol. 32, N°. 4, 7 |

16 | GIRAUD Frédéric, AMBERG Michel, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty "Design and Control of a Haptic Knob" Sensors and Actuators - Physical, Vol. 196, p. 78-85, 7, url, Introducing haptic into tactile input interfaces allow users to really feel their action on the device they control by this way. In this paper, we achieve tactile stimulation by using the squeeze film effect. It is applied on a haptic knob, as those which control an MP3 player for example. We present our design procedure of the active surface and of the position sensor based on force measurement which achieves a resolution of 3.6 deg. We also show that stimuli are damped by fingertip, and a specific control loop with a response time of 2.5 ms has been achieved to tackle this problem. Finally, a psychophysical experiment was conducted showing how the haptic feedback can increase user’s accuracy in a pointing task. |

17 | TANG Zuqi, LE MENACH Yvonnick, CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, PIRIOU Francis "A posteriori error estimator for harmonic A-Phi formulation" The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, Vol. 32, N°. 4, p. 1219 - 1229, 7, url |

18 | ABDELLI Radia, REKIOUA Djamila, REKIOUA Toufik, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm "Improved direct torque control of an induction generator in a wind conversion system connected to the grid" ISA Transactions, Vol. 52, N°. 4, p. 525-538, 7 |

19 | TARDIVEAU Rémi, GIRAUD Frédéric, GIRAUD-AUDINE Christophe, AMBERG Michel, LEMAIRE-SEMAIL Betty "Power Consideration in a Piezoelectric Generator" Smart Materials Research, Vol. 2013, 6, url, A piezoelectric generator converts mechanical energy into electricity and is used in energy harvesting devices. In this paper, synchronisation conditions in regard to the excitation vibration are studied. We show that a phase shift of ninety degrees between the vibration excitation and the bender’s displacement provides the maximum power from the mechanical excitation. However, the piezoelectric material is prone to power losses; hence the bender’s displacement amplitude is optimised in order to increase the amount of power which is converted into electricity. In the paper, we use active energy harvesting to control the power flow, and all the results are achieved at a frequency of 200 Hz which is well below the generator’s resonant frequency. |

20 | MKADDEM Ali, BENABOU Abdelkader, EL MANSORI Mohamed, CLENET Stéphane "Analytical modeling to predict the cutting behavior of ferromagnetic steels: A coupled magnetic–mechanical approach" International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 50, N°. 13, p. 2078-2086, 6 |

21 | ROBYNS Benoît, DAVIGNY Arnaud, SAUDEMONT Christophe "Methodologies for supervision of hybrid energy sources based on storage systems – A survey" Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Elsevier, Vol. 91, p. 52-71, 5, Hybrid Energy Sources based on Storage Systems (HES) are increasingly used to improve the grid integration of renewable energy generators, or to improve the energy efficiency and the reliability of transport systems. This paper proposes a survey on the methodologies to design fuzzy logic based supervision strategies of this new kind of energy generating systems. Different ways to manage energy storage system are particularly discussed. A graphical modeling tool is used to facilitate the analysis and the determination of fuzzy control algorithms adapted to complex hybrid systems. The methodology is divided in different steps covering the design of a supervisor from the system work specifications to an optimized implementation of the control. An Experimental Design Methodology (EDM) combined with optimization algorithms is used to tune a set of parameters suitable for a fuzzy supervisor in order to optimize power, energy, efficiency, voltage quality, economic or environmental indicators. The application of this methodology to the supervision of different topologies of HES, based on renewable energy in a grid or in building applications or dedicated to transport systems, illustrates the performance and the systematic dimension of the approach. |

22 | GRUSON François, LE MOIGNE Philippe, DELARUE Philippe, VIDET Arnaud, CIMETIERE Xavier "A Simple Carrier-Based Modulation for the SVM of the Matrix Converter" IEEE Transactions Industrial Informatics, Vol. 9, N°. 2, p. 947-956, 5, Today, industry has not fully embraced the matrix converter solution. One important reason is its high control complexity. It is therefore relevant to propose a simpler but efficient modulation scheme, similar as three phase VSI modulators with the well-known symmetrical carrier-based ones. The modulation presented in this paper is equivalent to a particular Space Vector Modulation (SVM) and takes into account harmonics and unbalanced input voltages, with the same maximum voltage transfer ratio (86%). The aim of this work is to propose a simple and general pulse-width-modulation method using carrier-based modulator for an easier matrix converter control. Furthermore, a simple duty cycle calculation method is used, based on a virtual matrix converter. Finally, simulations and experimentations are presented to validate this simple, original and efficient modulation concept equivalent to matrix converter SVM. |

23 | BEDDEK Karim, CLENET Stéphane, MOREAU Olivier, LE MENACH Yvonnick "Solution of large stochastic finite element problem – application to ECT-NDT" IEEE Trans. on. Mag,, Vol. 49, N°. 5, p. 1605-1608, 5 |

24 | MAC Duy Hung, CLENET Stéphane, MIPO Jean-Claude, TSUKERMAN Igor "A priori error estimator in the transformation method taking into account the geometric uncertainties" IEEE Trans. on Mag, Vol. 49, N°. 5, p. 1597-1600, 5 |

25 | THOMAS Pierre, LE MENACH Yvonnick "An Arbitrary Thick Shell Finite Element for Eddy-Current Dual Vector-Scalar Potential Formulations" IEEE Trans. Mag, Vol. 49, N°. 5, p. 1725-1728, 5 |

26 | RODRIGUES A. Wendell de O., CHEVALLIER Loïc, LE MENACH Yvonnick, GUYOMARC’H Frédéric "Test Harness on a Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Solver on GPUs: An Efficiency Analysis" IEEE Trans. Mag, Vol. 49, N°. 5, p. 1729-1732, 5 |

27 | MOREAU Olivier, BEDDEK Karim, CLENET Stéphane, LE MENACH Yvonnick "Stochastic NonDestructive Testing simulation: sensitivity analysis applied to material properties for tube support plate clogging in nuclear power plant steam generator" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 49, N°. 9, p. 1873-1876, 5 |

28 | TANG Zuqi, LE MENACH Yvonnick, CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, PIRIOU Francis "Residual based a posteriori error estimators for harmonic A/Phi and T/Omega formulations in eddy current problems" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 49, N°. 5, 5, url |

29 | BREBAN Stefan, SAUDEMONT Christophe, VIEILLARD S, ROBYNS Benoît "Experimental design and genetic algorithm optimization of a fuzzy logic supervisor for embedded electrical power systems" Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Elsevier, Vol. 91, p. 91-107, 5, The embedded power systems are nowadays developing at high pace. Hybrid-electric vehicles, full- electric vehicles, airplanes, ships, high-speed trains, all share a common point – the embedded electrical power system. This paper aims to present an optimization methodology of a fuzzy-logic supervision strategy. The optimization objectives are to minimize the DC-link voltage variations, and to increase the system efficiency by reducing the dissipated power. For that, a methodology involving the experimental design and genetic algorithm will be presented. The simulation and experimental results are validating the proposed procedure. |

30 | WANG Zifu, HENNERON Thomas, NEMITZ Nicolas, MIPO Jean-Claude, PIRIOU Francis "Electromagnetic Field Projection on Finite Element Overlapping Domains" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 49, N°. 4, p. 1290-1298, 4, Coupled problems are made up of subproblems of which the physical nature differs. Using indirect coupling models, the subproblems are calculated separately on their own meshes to ensure precision. To obtain a precise solution for the total problem, it is important to ensure the transmission of information between the subproblems. In this paper, we present field projection methods on overlapping domains. In comparison to earlier works, the classical $L^{2}$ or $mathbf{L}^{2}$ projection theory is extended to $H(mathbf{grad})$, $mathbf{H}(mathbf{curl})$ and $mathbf{H}(div)$ to obtain increased projection accuracy for the distributional derivatives. A Petrov-Galerkin method is then presented to fill the test space using a bi-orthogonal basis, without losing the optimality of the result in comparison to the $L^{2}$ or $mathbf{L}^{2}$ Ritz-Galerkin method. Using the Petrov-Galerkin method and bi-orthogonal test functions, the projection is presented using a diagonal matrix. However, in the standard Ritz-Galerkin projections, a linear system must be solved. |

31 | TAN Wenhua, CUELLAR Carlos, MARGUERON Xavier, IDIR Nadir "A High Frequency Equivalent Circuit and Parameter Extraction Procedure for Common Mode Choke in EMI Filter" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 28, N°. 3, p. 1157-1166, 3, Power converters with high switching frequency generate conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise. EMI filters are thus widely used to reduce these conducted noises for the compliance with electromagnetic compatibility standards. In this paper, a high-frequency (HF) equivalent circuit model for common mode (CM) chokes used in EMI filters is proposed together with its parameter extraction procedure. This procedure is based on impedance measurements and it incorporates an iterative rational function approximation fitting algorithm to extract the parameters in the model. The proposed model and procedure is applied to a planar CM choke which is used to realize an EMI filter. The simulated results of the filter show good agreement with the experimental ones. This extraction procedure is quite general and it can also be extended to identify the HF model of other passive components. |

32 | GARCIAHERREROS Ivan Mauricio, KESTELYN Xavier, GOMAND Julien, COLEMAN Ralph, BARRE Pierre-Jean "Model-based decoupling control method for dual-drive gantry stages: A case study with experimental validations" Control Engineering Practice, Vol. 21, N°. 3, p. pp. 298-307, 3, url, Industrial motion control of dual–drive gantry stages is usually performed by position controllers acting independently on each actuator. This approach neglects the unbalance and the mechanical coupling between actuators, leading to poor positioning performances. To overcome this drawback, a model–based decoupling control is proposed. Initially, a dynamic model of the gantry stage is proposed. Once identified and validated, such model is written in terms of a decoupling basis. Then, by model inversion, a feedbackfeedforward decoupling control is presented. Experimental results show that, in comparison to the independent axis control approach, the proposed solution leads to improved motion control. |

33 | SANDULESCU Alexandru-Paul, MEINGUET Fabien, KESTELYN Xavier, SEMAIL Eric, BRUYERE Antoine "Flux-weakening operation of open-end winding drive integrating a cost effective high-power charger " IET - Electrical Systems in Transportation, Vol. 3, N°. 1, p. 10 - 21, ISBN 2042-9738, 3, url, In this study, a three-phase drive with a six-leg voltage source inverter and an open-end winding interior permanent magnet synchronous machine designed for traction of an electric vehicle is studied in a ﬂux-weakening operation. The topology allows the functionality of a high-power charger to be obtained, without adding any other supplementary power devices. On the other hand, since there are three independent currents, the control structure has to handle not only the two dq-current components but also a zero-sequence current. If neglected, in comparison with a wye-coupled three-phase drive, this zero-sequence component can cause a higher maximum peak value of the phase currents, additional stator Joule losses, torque ripple, inverter voltage saturation and insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) oversizing. The proposed control strategy consists in adapting a conventional method used for wye-connected machines particularly in ﬂux-weakening operation. This strategy allows the closed-loop control of the zero-sequence current to be maintained in the whole speed range and therefore inverter saturation is avoided. Simulations and experimental results are presented and analysed. |

34 | MEINGUET Fabien, SANDULESCU Alexandru-Paul, KESTELYN Xavier, SEMAIL Eric "A Method for Fault Detection and Isolation based on the Processing of Multiple Diagnostic Indices: Application to Inverter Faults in AC Drives" IEEE Trans. on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 62, N°. 2, p. 995-1009, ISBN 10.1109/TVT.2012.2234157, 3, url, A general method for fault detection and isolation is proposed and applied to inverter faults in drives of electric vehicles. This method is based on a change-detection algorithm, which allows multiple fault indices to be combined for retrieving the most likely state of the drive. The considered drive topology is a six-leg inverter associated with a three-phase machine. Due to the inherent fault-tolerant topology, the conventional fault indices are no longer effective. Therefore, an analysis of simulations in faulty conditions leads to the derivation of suitable fault indices. These are based on the envelope of the phase currents as well as their instantaneous frequency. Specific operating conditions related to the electric vehicle environment are taken into account, such as the flux-weakening region and energy recovery. Finally, the performances of the fault detection and isolation scheme are evaluated under steady state and non-stationary conditions through simulations and experimental results. |

35 | TAN Wenhua, MARGUERON Xavier, IDIR Nadir "An Analytical Method for Modeling Parasitic Capacitances of Planar Components for EMI Filters" European Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 16, N°. 3/4, p. 425-445, 3, This paper presents an analytical method for calculating the parasitic capacitances of planar components with 3 dimensions. The calculation is based on the Electric Field Decomposition (EFD) between multi-conductors. 2D formulations used in micro-electronics have been extended to enable the applications on the cases of planar magnetic components. The 3D calculation is then based on an energy approach with the consideration of the magnetic core effects. Prototypes of inductors and coupled inductors allow the validation of this fully analytical approach. |

36 | CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, TANG Zuqi, LE MENACH Yvonnick, NEMITZ Nicolas, PIRIOU Francis "Residual-based a posteriori estimators for the T/Omega magnetodynamic harmonic formulation of the Maxwell system" International Journal of Numerical Analysis and Modeling, Vol. 10, N°. 2, p. 411-429, 2, url, In this paper, we focus on an a posteriori residual-based error estimator for the T/Omega magnetodynamic harmonic formulation of the Maxwell system. Similarly to the A/Phi formulation, the weak continuous and discrete formulations are established, and the well-posedness of both of them is addressed. Some useful analytical tools are derived. Among them, an ad-hoc Helmholtz decomposition for the T/Omega case is derived, which allows to pertinently split the error. Consequently, an a posteriori error estimator is obtained, which is proven to be reliable and locally efficient. Finally, numerical tests confirm the theoretical results. |

37 | BOULON Loïc, BOUSCAYROL Alain, HISSEL Daniel, PAPE Olivier, PERA Marie-Cécile "Inversion-based control of a highly redundant military HEV" IEEE transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 62, N°. 2, p. 500-510, 2, This paper deals with the control design of a military hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The studied vehicle presents a highly redundant architecture to ensure high system reliability. As a consequence, the control scheme is complex to design. Energetic macroscopic representation (EMR) is used to describe the interaction between all subsystems of the powertrain. A control structure is deduced by an inversion of the EMR of the vehicle powertrain. Simulation results demonstrate the ability of this inversion-based control to achieve military missions. |

38 | GONG Jinlin, GILLON Frédéric, BROCHET Pascal "Fast Optimization of a Linear Induction Motor by 3-Level Space Mapping Technique" Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 416 - 417, p. 195-202, 1, url, For the design and analysis of a linear electrical motor, an analytical solution of electric and magnetic fields is barely achieved with the required accuracy, due to the end and edge effects, and the nonlinear characteristic of the materials. Optimal design with the finite element models (FEM) is often expensive, in terms of the computation time. The space-mapping techniques allow having an affordable computation cost with a minimum number of computationally expensive FEM evaluations. In this paper, based on a kriging model, a 2D FEM and a 3D FEM, a 3-level adapted output space-mapping technique is employed. The results show that the proposed algorithm allows saving a substantial amount of computation time compared to conventional 2-level output space-mapping technique. |

39 | TAN Wenhua, CUELLAR Carlos, MARGUERON Xavier, IDIR Nadir "A Common Mode Choke Using Toroid-EQ Mixed Structure" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 28, N°. 1, p. 31-335, 1, Abstract--- Electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters are main solutions to suppress the conducted emissions from static power converters. For some years, integration techniques for EMI filters have been widely investigated to realize more compact systems. In this letter, a common mode (CM) choke with toroid-EQ mixed structure is presented. This structure is constituted of a toroidal CM choke embedded into an EQ core. The proposed toroid-EQ CM choke presents three-fold advantages. First, it effectively increases the leakage inductance of the toroidal CM choke and hence increases the DM inductance. Secondly, it reduces the parasitic coupling between the choke and the filter capacitors. Finally, the component can be easily fabricated with low cost. Experimental verifications have been carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed toroid-EQ CM choke. |

1 | ZHANG He, DAVIGNY Arnaud, COLAS Frédéric, POSTE Y, ROBYNS Benoît "Fuzzy Logic based Energy Management Strategy for Commercial Buildings Integrating Photovoltaic and Storage Systems" Energy and Buildings, Elsevier, Vol. 54, p. 196-206, 12, This paper presents an energy management strategy for a commercial building in supermarket application. Some objectives are established as load shedding, to reduce the electricity bill and the CO2 emissions of commercial building, using photovoltaic (PV) and storage systems. An energy management supervision strategy based on the rules of the electricity bill will be presented. This paper focuses on the supervision strategy with the help of fuzzy logic and a graphical methodology to build it. It is shown, with the help of simulations and some economic and ecological indicators that the energy bill cost and the CO2 emissions can be reduced by using the proposed solution |

2 | GRBOVIC Petar, DELARUE Philippe, LE MOIGNE Philippe, BARTHOLOMEUS Patrick "The Ultra-capacitor Based Regenerative Controlled Electric Drives with Power Smoothing Capability" IEEE Transaction on Industrial electronics, Vol. 59, N°. 12, 12, Modern controlled electric drive applications, such as lifts, port rubber tyred gantry cranes, and tooling machines, are characterized by high ratio of the peak to average power. Moreover, such applications have a need for braking at rated power. In ordinary drives, the braking energy, which represents 30%–40% of the consumed energy, is dissipated on a brake resistor. Apart from this “energetic” issue, the mains interruption, the input current quality, and the mains peak power are additional issues to be addressed. A novel ultracapacitor-based controlled regenerative electric drive with peak power-smoothing function is presented in this paper. The ultracapacitor with an interconnection dc–dc converter is used to store and recover the braking energy. In addition, the dc–dc converter controls and smooths the rectifier input power. In comparison to state-of-the-art solutions, the new solution has better performance regarding size, cost, and efficiency. The presented solution is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. The results are presented and discussed. |

3 | FRATILA Radu, BENABOU Abdelkader, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, MIPO Jean-Claude "Nonlinear Modeling of Magnetization Loss in Permanent Magnets " IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 48, N°. 11, p. 4, 11, url, Permanent magnets are commonly used in electromechanical energy conversion devices, especially in permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM). When designing such devices, it is necessary to take account for the operating conditions of the permanent magnets. Ideally, the operating point of the magnet lies on a linear reversible demagnetization characteristic. Nevertheless, the operating conditions (temperature, demagnetization field, etc.) may have great influence on the magnetic characteristic that becomes strongly nonlinear and may lead to magnetization loss in the magnet. Consequently, the impact is also observed on the electrical machine performances. This paper presents a nonlinear model accounting for magnetization loss of permanent magnets which magnetic characteristic presents knee points in the demagnetization curve. The presented model is applied to analyze the local magnetization loss in magnets of a PMSM. |

4 | HENNERON Thomas, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane "Nonlinear Proper Generalized Decomposition Method Applied to the Magnetic Simulation of a SMC Microstructure " IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 48, N°. 11, 11 |

5 | MEKRI Fatiha, CHARPENTIER Jean-Frédéric, SEMAIL Eric "An efficient control of a series connected two-synchronous motor 5-phase with non sinusoidal EMF supplied by a single 5-leg VSI: Experimental and theoretical investigations " Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 92, p. 9, 11, url, The basis of an independent control of two 5-phase PM machines, connected in series to a single inverter, are presented. The influence of the harmonics of the EMF of the PM machines in the behavior of the system is discussed. An original strategy to determine optimal torque reference of each PM machine is presented. Experimental and simulation results demonstrated the efficiency and the robustness of the proposed strategy. The presented strategy leads to reach high level requirements in terms of torque quality. |

6 | RAMAROTAFIKA Rindra, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane "Stochastic Modeling of Soft Magnetic Properties of Electrical Steels: Application to Stators of Electrical Machines" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 48, N°. 10, p. 2573 - 2584, 10, To take account of the uncertainties introduced on the soft magnetic materials properties (magnetic behavior law, iron losses) during the manufacturing process, the present work deals with the stochastic modeling of the magnetic behavior law B-H and iron losses of claw pole stator generator. Twenty eight (28) samples of slinky stator (SS) coming from the same production chain have been investigated. The used approaches are similar to those used in mechanics. The accuracy of existing anhysteretic models has been tested first using cross validation techniques. The well known iron loss separation model has been implemented to take into account the variability of the losses. Then, the Multivariate Gaussian distribution is chosen to model the variability and dependencies between identified parameters, for both behavior law and iron loss models. The developed stochastic models allow predicting a 98% confidence interval for the considered samples. |

7 | DELILLE Gauthier, FRANCOIS Bruno, MALARANGE Gilles "Dynamic Frequency Control Support by Energy Storage to Reduce the Impact of Wind and Solar Generation on Isolated Power System’s Inertia " IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, Vol. 3, N°. 4, p. 931–939, 10, In electrical islands, frequency excursions are sizeable and automatic load shedding is often required in response to disturbances. Moreover, the displacement of conventional generation with wind and solar plants, which usually do not provide inertial response, further weakens these power systems. Fast-acting storage, by injecting power within instants after the loss of a generating unit, can back up conventional generation assets during the activation of their primary reserve. This paper relies on dynamic simulations to study the provision of such a dynamic frequency control support by energy storage systems in the French island of Guadeloupe with large shares of wind or solar generation. The results show that fast-acting storage, by acting as a synthetic inertia, can mitigate the impact of these sources on the dynamic performance of the studied island grid in the case of a major generation outage. The other concerns raised by renewables (e.g., variability, forecast accuracy, low voltage ride-through, etc.) have not been addressed within this project. |

8 | BOULON Loïc, AGBOSSOU Kodjo, HISSEL Daniel, SICARD Pierre, BOUSCAYROL Alain, PERA Marie-Cécile "A macroscopic PEM fuel cell model including water phenomena for vehicle simulation" Renewable Energy, Vol. 46, p. 81-91, 10, This paper presents a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell model suitable for water management analysis. In order to be integrated into a complete fuel cell vehicle simulation for real-time control and energy management designs, Energetic Macroscopic Representation is used. An experimental validation is performed and electric and gaseous behaviors are studied in particular. The integration of the developed model into a vehicle simulation, in which the FC is used as a range extender, demonstrates the use of the model and allows the study of the behavior of this system. |

9 | SAMARKANOV Dmitry, GILLON Frédéric, BROCHET Pascal, LALOY Daniel "Optimal design of induction machine using interval algorithms" COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 31, N°. 5, p. 1492 - 1502, ISBN 0332-1649, 8, url |

10 | MÜLLER Juliana-Luisa, ROMARY Raphaël, BENABOU Abdelkader, HENNERON Thomas, PIRIOU Francis, BASTOS João Pedro Assumpção, ROGER Jean-Yves "Interlaminar short circuit detection: modeling and measurement" Compel, Vol. 31, N°. 5, 8, Short circuits in turbo-generator stators can lead to a modification of the magnetic flux distribution that impacts the performances and, in some extreme cases, can lead to local damage of the iron core. This work presents the modeling of short circuited laminations in a stator yoke of a turbo-generator. A 3D finite element (FE) model, associated to a homogenization technique, is used to calculate the short circuit current. The results are compared with the experiment, especially for the electrical signature of the diagnosis test known as Electromagnetic Core imperfection detector (El Cid). |

11 | YOUSFI F. L., OULD ABDESLAM Djaffar, BOUTHIBA T., NGUYEN Ngac Ky, MERCKLE Jean "Adaline for Online Symmetrical Components and Phase Angles Identification in Transmission Lines" IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 27, N°. 3, p. 1134-1143, 7, This paper presents a new method for online symmetrical components and phase-angle extraction from high-voltage transmission-line faults. This method is based on the Adaline neural networks and the instantaneous power theory, also known as the p-q method. A new current decomposition is proposed in order to derive the direct, inverse, and homopolar current components. The average and oscillating terms of powers in the αβ frame are separated by using four Adaline neural networks. The Adalines use a cosine and sine as inputs in order to learn the linear combination of the powers. The resulting symmetrical components are used by three other Adalines for phase-angle estimation between direct and inverse current components. These phase angles permit classifying the fault types. The neural networks use an online learning process-based Widrow-Hoff algorithm and can adapt their weight parameters to the power-supply evolution. Simulation results show the performance and the robustness of this method and provide a perspective for protection relay improvement. |

12 | GONG Jinlin, BEN AYED Ramzi, GILLON Frédéric, BRISSET Stéphane, BROCHET Pascal "Three-Level Adapted Output Space Mapping Technique for Bi-Objective Optimization" Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, Electrical Review, Vol. 5, ISBN ISSN: 0033-2097, 7, url, Multi-objective optimization with 3D finite element model is a complex and time consuming process. Output space-mapping techniques allow having an affordable computation cost with a minimum number of computationally expensive FEM evaluations. In this paper, a three-level adapted output space-mapping technique is proposed to assist two-objective optimization problems. Three models having different granularity and describing the same device are used jointly in the optimization process. The results for the safety isolating transformer show that the proposed algorithm allows saving a substantial amount of computation time compared to the classical two-level output space-mapping technique. |

13 | BRACIKOWSKI Nicolas, HECQUET Michel, BROCHET Pascal, SHIRINSKII Sergey "Multi-physics modeling of a permanent magnet synchronous machine by using lumped models" Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 59, N°. 6, p. 2426 -2437, 6, url, This paper describes the modeling of a permanent magnet synchronous machine by using lumped models. Designing electrical machines necessarily involves several fields of physics, such as electromagnetics, thermics, mechanics and acoustics. Magnetic, electrical, electronic and thermal parts are represented by lumped models, whereas vibro-acoustic and mechanical parts are represented by analytical models. The aim of this study is to build a design model of a permanent magnet synchronous machine for traction applications. Each model is parameterized in order to optimize the machine. The method of taking into account saturation and movement is described. These fast, lumped models make it possible to couple the software used with optimization tools. Simulation results are presented and compared with the finite element method and the experiments performed. |

14 | KOTNY Jean-Luc, MARGUERON Xavier, IDIR Nadir "High Frequency Model of the coupled inductors used in EMI Filters" IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 27, N°. 6, p. 2805-2812, 6, This paper deals with a high-frequency modeling method of the coupled inductors used in electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters. These filters are intended to reduce conducted emissions generated by power static converters towards the power grid. To model the EMI filters, it is necessary to identify the various parameters of the passive elements: inductors and capacitors. Because of their major impact on filter efficiency, these elements must be identified with accuracy. In this study, high-frequency model of common-mode-coupled inductors is proposed. The identification of the model parameters is based on the experimental approach. Simulation results of the proposed model are compared to the experimental data obtained using the specific experimental setup. These results made it possible to validate the EMI filter model and its robustness in a frequency range varying from 9 kHz to 30MHz. The proposed high-frequency inductor models will be very helpful for design and optimization of EMI filters, since the high-frequency behavior of the filter mainly depends on magnetic materials used and on the geometrical characteristics of winding. |

15 | RIZOUG Nassim, BARTHOLOMEUS Patrick, LE MOIGNE Philippe "Study of the ageing process of a supercapacitor module using direct method of characterization" IEEE Energy conversion, Vol. 27, N°. 2, 6, In this paper, a study of the supercapacitors’ ageing process is presented. The originality of this work is that the tests are made under conditions similar to those of an industrial application. A continuous cycling is applied in order to obtain these test conditions. The measurement is done thanks to a test bench developed in our laboratory. More than 560,000 cycles have already been done, which corresponds to 325 cumulated days of continuous cycling. These tests allow to understand the ageing process of supercapacitors and to follow the evolution of theirs characteristics during their lifetime. The aim of this work is to study the behavior of the cells which compose the supercapacitors module (48V/ 112F). |

16 | SANCHEZ Roberto, GUILLAUD Xavier, DAUPHIN-TANGUY Geneviève "Hybrid electrical power system modeling and management" Simulation Modelling and Practice, Vol. 25, p. 190-205, 6 |

17 | AMMAR Aymen, BROCHET Pascal, GILLON Frédéric "The Double Excitation: A Solution to Improve Energetic Performances of High Power Synchronous Machines" Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, 6 |

18 | GONG Jinlin, BERBECEA Alexandru Claudiu, GILLON Frédéric, BROCHET Pascal "Multi-objective Optimization of a Linear Induction Motor using 3D FEM" International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering(Compel), Vol. 31, N°. 3, p. 958-971, ISBN 0332-1649, 5, url |

19 | CREUSE Emmanuel, NICAISE Serge, TANG Zuqi, LE MENACH Yvonnick, NEMITZ Nicolas, PIRIOU Francis "Residual-based a posteriori estimators for the A/Phi magnetodynamic harmonic formulation of the Maxwell system" Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences, Vol. 22, N°. 5, p. 30, 5, url, This paper is devoted to the derivation of an a posteriori residual-based error estimator for the A-Phi magnetodynamic harmonic formulation of the Maxwell system. The weak continuous and discrete formulations are established, and the well-posedness of both of them is addressed. Some useful analytical tools are derived. Among them, an ad hoc Helmholtz decomposition is proven, which allows to pertinently split the error. Consequently, an a posteriori error estimator is obtained, which is proven to be reliable and locally efficient. Finally, numerical tests confirm the theoretical results. |

20 | BEN AYED Ramzi, GONG Jinlin, BRISSET Stéphane, GILLON Frédéric, BROCHET Pascal "Three-Level Output Space Mapping Strategy for Electromagnetic Design Optimization" IEEE transactions on magnetics, Vol. 48, N°. 2, p. 671-674, 5, Optimal design with finite element model is often expensive in terms of computation time. The output space mapping technique allows benefiting both the rapidity of the analytical model and the accuracy of the finite element model. In this paper, a three-level output space-mapping technique is proposed to reduce the computation time. Three models having a different granularity and describing the same device are used jointly within the optimization process. Proposed strategy is applied for solving the optimal design problems of two electromagnetic devices. Results show that three-level output space mapping strategy allows saving a substantial computation time compared to the classical two-level output space-mapping. |

21 | RAMAROTAFIKA Rindra, BENABOU Abdelkader, CLENET Stéphane "Experimental Characterization of the Iron Losses Variability in Stators of Electrical Machines" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 48, N°. 4, p. 1629-1632, 4, Manufacturing processesmay introduce a significant variability on the magnetic properties of claw pole generator stators. The present work deals with the analysis of two groups of stator samples. The first group is composed of 28 slinky stators (SS) and the second group is composed of 5 stators, manufactured using laser cut stacked laminations (SL). Both groups are made from the same lamination grade and with the same geometrical dimensions. Characterization was carried out for several levels of excitation field at 50 Hz. A noticeable variability has been observed on the iron losses for SS samples, whereas it appears to be not significant for SL samples. The loss separation technique has then been investigated for the SS samples. Results show that the variability of static losses is more important than the one of dynamic losses. |

22 | AHMIDI Amir, GUILLAUD Xavier, BESANGER Y, BLANC R "A Multilevel Approach for Optimal Participating of Wind Farms at Reactive Power Balancing in Transmission Power System" IEEE Systems Journal, Vol. 6, N°. 2, p. 260 – 269, 4 |

23 | AUBERTIN Mathieu, HENNERON Thomas, PIRIOU Francis "Mortar method using bi-orthogonal nodal functions applied to A-phi formulation " IEEE transaction on magnetics, Vol. 48, N°. 2, 2 |

24 | BEDDEK Karim, CLENET Stéphane, MOREAU Olivier, COSTAN Valentin, LE MENACH Yvonnick, BENABOU Abdelkader "Adaptive method for non-intrusive spectral projection application on a stochastic eddy current NDT problem" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 48, N°. 2, p. 759-762, 2, The Non-Intrusive Spectral Projection (NISP) method is widely used for uncertainty quantification in stochastic models. The determination of the expansion of the solution on the polynomial chaos requires the computation of multidimensional integrals. An automatic adaptive algorithm based on nested sparse grids has been developed to evaluate those integrals. The adapted algorithm takes into account the weight of each random variable with respect to the output of the model. To achieve that it constructs anisotropic sparse grid of the mean, leading to a reduction of the number of numerical simulations. Furthermore, the spectral form of the solution is explicitly identified from the constructed quadrature scheme. Numerical results obtained on an industrial application in NDT demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. |

25 | BERBECEA Alexandru Claudiu, BEN AYED Ramzi, GILLON Frédéric, BRISSET Stéphane, BROCHET Pascal "Comparison of Efficient Global Optimization and Output Space Mapping on the bi-objective optimization of a safety isolating transformer" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 48, N°. 2, p. 791-794, 2, url, The optimal design of electromagnetic devices needs to address two particular aspects: 1) the use of accurate tools and 2) the limited time budget affected to this task. In order to respond to these issues, two low evaluation budget multiobjective optimization techniques — efficient global optimization (EGO) and output space mapping (OSM) — are investigated in this paper with regard to a biobjective optimization benchmark. The device to be optimally sized is a low-voltage safety isolating transformer, represented through two levels of modeling: 1) coarse (analytical model) and 2) fine (numerical 3-D FEM). The biobjective character of the problem is accounted for by OSM through an epsilon-constraint technique. A transformation technique is set up with EGO by considering the constraints as an additional objective function in order to handle the constraints of the initial optimization problem. The biobjective comparison of the two techniques on the transformer benchmark is discussed. |

26 | THOMAS Pierre, LE MENACH Yvonnick "A three-dimensional electromagnetic shell finite element for coupled vector-scalar potential formulations" IEEE Trans. mag, Vol. 48, N°. 2, p. 823-826, 2 |

27 | RODRIGUES A. Wendell de O., GUYOMARC’H Frédéric, DEKEYSER Jean-Luc, LE MENACH Yvonnick "Automatic Multi-GPU Code Generation Applied to Simulation of Electrical Machines" IEEE Trans. Mag, Vol. 48, N°. 2, p. 823-826, 2 |

28 | GRBOVIC Petar, DELARUE Philippe, LE MOIGNE Philippe, BARTHOLOMEUS Patrick "A Three-Terminal Ultra-Capacitor Based Energy Storage and PFC Device for Regenerative Controlled Electric Drives" IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 59, N°. 1, p. 301-316, 1, Most of modern controlled electric drive applications, such as lifts, cranes, and tooling machines, are characterized by a high ratio of the peak to average power. In addition, such applications have high demand for braking at the full rated power. In ordinary drives, the braking energy, which represents 30%–50% of the consumed energy, is dissipated on a brake resistor. Apart from this “energetic” issue, power supply interruption and the input current quality are two additional issues to be solved. A novel regenerative controlled electric drive based on an ultracapacitor as energy storage is presented in this paper. The ultracapacitor with an interface dc–dc converter is used to store and recover the braking energy. In addition, the dc–dc converter controls the rectifier current and reduces the drive input current total-harmonic- distortion factor down to 30%. Moreover, the dc bus voltage is boosted and controlled to be constant and ripple free regardless of the load and the mains voltage variation. In comparison to state-of-the-art solutions, the new solution has better performance regarding size, cost, and efficiency. The presented solution is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. The results are presented and discussed. |

29 | BEDDEK Karim, CLENET Stéphane, MOREAU Olivier, LE MENACH Yvonnick "Spectral stochastic finite element method for solving 3D stochastic eddy current problems" International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics, Vol. 39, N°. 1-4, p. 753-760, 1, In this paper, a spectral stochastic finite element method (SSFEM) is described and applied to quantify uncertainties in an industrial eddy current non destructive testing (NDT) problem. A new iterative solver based on the fixed-point method is proposed to solve the large scale linear system. The efficiency of the suggested iterative solver to tackle the SSFEM computational complexity is demonstrated. The SSFEM results and the computation times obtained with 2 and 4 random variables are compared to those given by the anisotropic adaptive sparse grid non intrusive spectral projection (NISP). On this application, the SSFEM dedicated solver is competitive with the adaptive sparse grids strategy. |

30 | MAC Duy Hung, CLENET Stéphane, MIPO Jean-Claude "Comparison of two approaches to compute magnetic field in problems with random domains" IET Science, Measurement and Technology, Vol. 6, N°. 5, p. 331-338, 1, Methods are now available to solve numerically electromagnetic problems with uncertain input data (behaviour law or geometry). The stochastic approach consists in modelling uncertain data using random variables. Discontinuities on the magnetic field distribution in the stochastic dimension can arise in a problem with uncertainties on the geometry. The basis functions (polynomial chaos) usually used to approximate the unknown fields in the random dimensions are no longer suited. One possibility proposed in the literature is to introduce additional functions (enrichment function) to tackle the problem of discontinuity. In this study, the authors focus on the method of random mappings they show that in this case the discontinuity are naturally taken into account that no enrichment function needs to be added |

31 | VIDET Arnaud, ARPILLIÈRE Michel, GUYOMARD Jocelyn, LOIZELET Philippe "Application of mutilevel inverter topologies for variable-speed drives: modulation strategies and EMC preformance" European Journal of Electrical Engineering, 1, This paper focuses on 3-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) and ﬂying-capacitor (FC) inverter topologies for variable-speed-drives. Although such topologies generate less conducted electromagnetic interferences than conventional two-level ones, their electromagnetic- compatibility (EMC) performance highly depends on their pulse-width-modulation (PWM) strategy. A comparative evaluation of several PWM strategies is performed, including a recently proposed method for NPC inverters, adapted to the speciﬁcities of the FC converter in this paper. Simulation results and experimental validations consolidate this comparative study. |

32 | TAIB N, METIDJI N, REKIOUA B, FRANCOIS Bruno "Novel Low-Cost Self-Powered Supply Solution of Bidirectional Switch Gate Driver for Matrix Converters " IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 59, N°. 1, p. 211-219, 1, Matrix converters (MCs) are considered as a step forward in ac/ac conversion, providing sine-in and sine-out voltages and currents, controlled input power factor, compact sight without the requirement of a dc bus capacitor, and bidirectional power flows. There are also drawbacks associated with this technology: More switching devices and associated gate driver circuit power supplies and protection systems are required. In this paper, a new low-cost self-powered supply for bidirectional insulated-gate bipolar transistor/MOSFET switch gate drivers is presented. The proposed circuit allows the gate driver power supply of the bidirectional switch without using a transformer or any external added dc supply. This method is characterized by a simple structure, which is cost and size effective, of the power electronics switch driver power supply with regard to those suggested in the literature. Simulation results are compared with experimental measurements for a three-phase-to-single-phase MC and validate the proposed circuit. |

33 | MEKRI Fatiha, CHARPENTIER Jean-Frédéric, KESTELYN Xavier, SEMAIL Eric "Etude comparative de différents correcteurs pour la commande optimale avec défauts d’une machine pentaphasée " European Journal of Electrical Engineering (EJEE, anciennement RIGE, Revue Internationale de Génie Électrique), 1, Cet article est consacré à l’étude d’une méthode de commande d’une machine synchrone à aimant permanent à cinq phases associée à un onduleur de tension à MLI. On s’intéresse au cas de la commande en mode normal et en mode dégradé. Les défauts étudiés sont liés à la déconnexion d’une phase ou de plusieurs phases. Dans ce cas, la méthode étudiée est basée sur une approche vectorielle permettant la détermination en ligne des courants de référence optimaux adaptés au défaut. L’étude se propose de comparer l’utilisation de régulateurs PID avec des régulateurs non linéaire de type hystérésis à bande fixe et à bande adaptative. Cette comparaison est effectuée en mode normal et en mode de défaut. Les résultats de simulation effectués sur MATLAB / Simulink sont présentés et discutés afin de vérifier les performances de la stratégie et des régulateurs étudiés. Ils montrent en particulier que si la régulation de type PID est performante en mode normal, elle ne permet pas d’assurer un suivi correct des références en mode de défaut car celles ci présentent des variations dynamiques importantes. Dans ce dernier cas d’étude l’utilisation de commandes non linéaires comme la commande par hystérésis est nécessaire et permet de garder le même schéma de commande en mode normal et dégradé. L’utilisation d’une commande par hystérésis à bande adaptative est alors judicieuse car elle permet de bonnes performances de suivi et une maitrise de la fréquence de commutation de l’onduleur. The use of multiphase PM machines associated with VSI drives appears to be a very efficient solution. Presented work focus on the use of such a system in open circuited phase fault conditions. With this kind of system it is possible to determine optimal currents references which maximize the torque density of the system when one or two phases are open circuited. Classical linear controllers (as PID for example) cannot provide a correct tracking of these optimal reference currents because they have a highly dynamical behavior. We propose in this paper to combine this optimal reference current generation with hysteresis control. This kind of solution allows a good tracking of these unconventional reference currents with a fixed switching frequency for the VSI. In this case of adaptive hysteresis band control appears to be particularly efficient. |