Fiche individuelle
Alain BOUSCAYROL  
Titre  Professeur  
Equipe  Commande  
Adresse  Université Lille 1 Batiment P2 59655 VILLENEUVED'ASCQ  
Téléphone  +33 (0)320434253  
Fax  +33 (0)320436967  
alain.bouscayrol@univlille1.fr  
Site personnel  http://www.emrwebsite.org/alainbouscayrol2.html  
Observation / Thématique de recherche  Représentation Energétique Macroscopique ; gestion d'énergie de véhicules électriques et hybrides  
Publications 
ACLI Revue internationale avec comité de lecture 

[1] Electrokinematical simulation for flexible energetic studies of railway systems IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 65, N°. 4, pages. 35923600, 04/2018, Abstract MAYET Clément, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, CHATTOT Eric, VERHILLE JeanNoël 
Simulation is a valuable tool to evaluate energy consumptions and design of railway systems. The system limitations have an important influence on the system behavior and must be taken into account in the simulation. Especially, the electromechanical limitations have an impact on the kinematical behavior. However, such limitations are often neglected in classical studies. This paper deals with the development of an adaptive electrokinematical simulation to adapt the kinematical behavior according to the system’s limitations. A flexible simulation tool is obtained by taking into account electrical, mechanical, and kinematical limitations. This tool is experimentally validated on a real railway track. It is then used to study solutions to increase the transport capacity of a subway system, even when limitations occur. 
[2] Realtime Backstepping control for fuel cell vehicle using supercapacitors IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 67, N°. 1, pages. 306314, 01/2018 DEPATURE Clément, LHOMME Walter, SICARD Pierre, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BOULON Loïc 
[3] Comparisons of Electrical Vehicles using Modular Cascade Machines System and Classical Single Drive Electrical Machine IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 67, N°. 1, pages. 354361, 01/2018 LI Kaibo, BOUSCAYROL Alain, HAN Shoulaing, CUI Shumei 
[4] Energy Savings of a Hybrid Truck using a Ravigneaux Gear Train IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 66, N°. 10, pages. 8682  8692, 10/2017 LHOMME Walter, BOUSCAYROL Alain, SYED Ali, ROY S, GAILLY F, PAPE Olivier 
[5] Characterization of the Electric Drive of EV: Onroad versus Offroad Method IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, Vol. 7, N°. 3, pages. 215222, 08/2017 DEPATURE Clément, LHOMME Walter, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BOULON Loïc, SICARD Pierre, JOKELA Tommi 
[6] HardwareIntheLoop Simulation of Traction Power Supply for Power Flows Analysis of MultiTrain Subway Lines IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 66, N°. 7, pages. 55645571, 07/2017, Abstract MAYET Clément, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHATTOT Eric 
Multitrain systems are complex to study due to the size of the system and its specificities. To tackle these difficulties, this paper develops a reducedscale power HardwareIntheLoop (HIL) simulation dedicated to subway lines emulations. Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is used to organize the HIL simulation. A first monotrain HIL simulation is developed and validated by experimental results. The HIL simulation is then extended to a twotrain study to analyze the different power flows between subsystems. 
[7] Impact of heating system on the range of an electric vehicle IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 66, N°. 3, pages. 4668  4677, 06/2017, Abstract HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter, DEPATURE Clément 
For an accurate evaluation of the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV), many conditions must be considered (road profile, traffic influence, etc.). However cabin heating system is not often considered despite its significant impact. In this paper, the impact of the cabin heating system is studied on the driving range of an EV. A real EV is used as a reference. A multidomain model is developed and validated by experimental results on the vehicle. From this validated model, the impact of the heating system on the range is evaluated up to 30% in cold climatic conditions. In a classical approach, an ecodriving mode enables an increase in the range by reducing the vehicle acceleration and velocity. When considering the heating system, the energy balance is more complex: the ecodriving mode can lead to an overconsumption of energy. A better compromise is required as a function of the climatic condition 
[8] Influence of the heating system on the fuel consumption of a hybrid electric vehicle Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 129, pages. 250–261, 12/2016, Abstract HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHENG Yuan, DUMAND Clément, COLIN Guillaume, CHAMAILLARD Yann 
This research work aims to study the impact of the heating system on the fuel consumption of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The thermal engine is less used in an HEV than in a thermal vehicle, thus the cabin heating is partly ensured by electrical resistances. However, because the battery is partly charged by the thermal engine, this electrical heating has an impact on the fuel consumption. In the present work, a multidomain model is proposed to analyze the impact of the heating system on the fuel consumption of a HEV. The models of the different physical subsystems are organized and unified by energetic macroscopic representation (EMR). Experimental validations, with an accuracy of 95%, are provided for each subsystem model. The validated simulation models are used to study the impact of the heating system for a specific driving cycle and climatic condition. For a simple energy management strategy (EMS), there is an overconsumption of 19% that is due to the heating system. When a more efficient EMS is used, the overconsumption is reduced to 12%. This study shows the interest in developing advanced energy management strategies that couple the traction and the heating functions of the vehicle. 
[9] Comparison of Different EMRbased Models of Traction Power Substations for Energetic Studies of Subway Lines IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 65, N°. 3, pages. 10211029, 03/2016, Abstract MAYET Clément, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHATTOT Eric, VERHILLE JeanNoël 
Simulation is a valuable way to develop cleaner transportation systems. Nevertheless, the complexity of this kind of system conducts to complex models, especially to take into account nonlinear aspects of traction power substations (TPS). This paper proposes thus different TPS models based on the Energetic Macroscopic Representation. An appropriate model is deduced from comparisons between the different models to realize energetic studies. It is finally applied to the simulation of a simple subway line, which is experimentally validated. 
[10] Comparison of energy management strategies of a battery/supercapacitors system for Electric Vehicle under realtime constraints Applied Energy, Vol. 163, pages. 190200, 02/2016 CASTAINGS Ali, LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[11] Practical control schemes of a battery/supercapacitor system for electric vehicle IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, Vol. 6, N°. 1, pages. 2026, 11/2015 CASTAINGS Ali, LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[12] Dynamical and quasistatic multiphysical models of a diesel internal combustion engine using Energetic Macroscopic Representation Energy Conversion and Management (Elsevier), Vol. 91, pages. 280  291, 02/2015, Abstract HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHENG Yuan, EL FASSI Mehdi 
In the simulation of new vehicles, the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is generally modeled by a static map. This model yields the mechanical power and the fuel consumption. But some studies require the heat energy from the ICE to be considered (i.e. waste heat recovery, thermal regulation of the cabin). A dynamical multiphysical model of a diesel engine is developed to consider its heat energy. This model is organized using Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) in order to be interconnected to other various models of vehicle subsystems. An experimental validation is provided. Moreover a multiphysical quasistatic model is also derived. According to different modeling aims, a comparison of the dynamical and the quasistatic model is discussed in the case of the simulation of a thermal vehicle. These multiphysical models with different simulation time consumption provide good basis for studying the effects of the thermal energy on the vehicle behaviors, including the possibilities of waste heat recovery. 
[13] Coupling Bond Graph and Energetic Macroscopic Representation
for Electric Vehicle Simulation Mechatronics Elsevier, Vol. 24, N°. 7, pages. 906913, 10/2014, URL, Abstract SILVA Luis, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DE ANGELO Christian, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty 
This paper deals with the analysis and simulation of an electric vehicle, coupling functional and structural
approaches in the same simulation environment. The Bond Graph model, the structural approach, is ﬁrst
deduced from the physical system, which in turn produces a direct correspondence between the system
and its model. The control structure is then easily deduced from the Energetic Macroscopic Representa
tion, the functional approach, of the vehicle using a systematic procedure. Simulation results are provided
in order to analyze the performance of the closedloop system 
[14] Influence of an energy storage system on the energy consumption of a dieselelectric locomotive IEEE Transactions on vehicular technology, Vol. 63, N°. 3, pages. 10321040, 03/2014, Abstract MAYET Clément, POUGET Julien, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter 
This paper studies the influence of an Energy Storage System (ESS) on the fuel consumption of a dieselelectric locomotive. First, an energetic model of a dieselelectric locomotive is established using Energetic Macroscopic Representation. An inversionbased control is deduced, and the model is validated by experimental results on a real locomotive. Secondly, from this validated model, a battery/supercapacitor ESS is added in simulation in order to study the benefit of the hybridization before integration on the real vehicle. The simulations show that a simple energy management based on a frequency approach allows the reduction of 25% the fuel consumption on a real drive cycle. 
[15] Comparison of different models and simulation approaches for the energetic study of a subway IEEE Transactions on vehicular technology, Vol. 63, N°. 2, pages. 556565, 02/2014, Abstract MAYET Clément, HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, VERHILLE JeanNoël, CHATTOT Eric, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty 
This paper aims to compare different models and simulation approaches for an energetic simulation of an automatic subway. For this purpose, several models are carried out from a dynamic model which is validated by comparison with experimental measurements. Furthermore, two different simulation approaches are compared: backward and forward approaches. A simplified model is obtained and allows the reduction of the simulation time by 96 compared to the dynamic model by keeping an accuracy of more than 99 %. 
[16] Improvement of an EVTbased HEV using dynamic programming IEEE transactions on Vehicular Technology , Vol. 63, N°. 1, pages. 4049, 01/2014 VINOT Emmanuel, TRIGUI Rochdi, CHENG Yuan, ESPANET Christophe, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[17] Control validation of Peugeot 3∞8 Hybrid4 vehicle using a reducedscale power HIL simulation Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, Vol. 8, N°. 5, pages. 12271233, 09/2013, Abstract LETROUVE Tony, LHOMME Walter, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DOLLINGER Nicolas 
(common paper of L2EP Lille, and PSA Peugeot Citroën within MEGEVH, French network on HEVs, extended version of the Award Paper Prize of IEEEVPPC 2012)
The new engineering challenges lead to a control of a vehicle more and more complex. To tackle this issue, HardwareIntheLoop (HIL) simulation is used in the development of realtime embedded systems. In this paper, the control of a double parallel hybrid vehicle is validated using a reduced power HIL simulation. A graphical description is used in order to organize the emulation and control. Some experimental results of a versatile testbed are given for the Peugeot 3∞8 HYbrid4. 
[18] Field weakening control of a PM electric variable transmission for HEV Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, Vol. 8, N°. 5, pages. 10961106, 09/2013, Abstract CHENG Yuan, BOUSCAYROL Alain, TRIGUI Rochdi, ESPANET Christophe, CUI Shumei 
Automotive engineers and researchers have proposed
different topologies for series–parallel hybrid electric vehicles
(SPHEVs). The Toyota Hybrid System (THS) is the best known
SPHEVbased vehicle, but alternative solutions, such as electric
variable transmission (EVT), have been also proposed. An efficient
comparison between these different solutions is a key point to
estimate the added value of each topology. This paper presents
the application of optimal control to two series–parallel hybrid
architectures for efficiency assessment purposes. The dynamic
programming method is applied to the THS and to a virtual
hybrid vehicle with an EVT. The way to take into account the
supplementary degree of freedom provided by the decoupling of
the wheels and the engine in both topologies is presented. The
optimal fuel consumption is then compared on different driving
cycles and brings out an overconsumption of the EVT topology.
Then, a parametric study shows that inserting an appropriate gear
ratio on the internalcombustionengine (ICE) shaft can improve
the EVT efficiency that becomes close to the THS efficiency. 
[19] Flexible realtime control of an Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, Vol. 3, N°. 3, pages. 7985, 09/2013 ALLEGRE AnneLaure, BOUSCAYROL Alain, TRIGUI Rochdi 
[20] Inversionbased control of a highly redundant military HEV IEEE transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 62, N°. 2, pages. 500510, 02/2013, Abstract BOULON Loïc, BOUSCAYROL Alain, HISSEL Daniel, PAPE Olivier, PERA MarieCécile 
This paper deals with the control design of a military hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The studied vehicle presents a highly redundant architecture to ensure high system reliability. As a consequence, the control scheme is complex to design. Energetic macroscopic representation (EMR) is used to describe the interaction between all subsystems of the powertrain. A control structure is deduced by an inversion of the EMR of the vehicle powertrain. Simulation results demonstrate the ability of this inversionbased control to achieve military missions. 
[21] A macroscopic PEM fuel cell model including water phenomena for vehicle simulation Renewable Energy, Vol. 46, pages. 8191, 10/2012, Abstract BOULON Loïc, AGBOSSOU Kodjo, HISSEL Daniel, SICARD Pierre, BOUSCAYROL Alain, PERA MarieCécile 
This paper presents a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell model suitable for water management analysis. In order to be integrated into a complete fuel cell vehicle simulation for realtime control and energy management designs, Energetic Macroscopic Representation is used. An experimental validation
is performed and electric and gaseous behaviors are studied in particular. The integration of the developed model into a vehicle simulation, in which the FC is used as a range extender, demonstrates the
use of the model and allows the study of the behavior of this system. 
[22] Analysis of Technical Requirements from the Toyota Prius II for the Design of a PMEVT IEEE transactions on Vehicular Technology, 10/2011 CHENG Yuan, TRIGUI Rochdi, ESPANET Christophe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CUI Shumei 
[23] Inversionbased control of a vehicle with a clutch using a switched causal modelling International Journal of Systems Science, Vol. 42, N°. 2, pages. 319–334, 02/2011 LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, JEANNERET Bruno 
[24] Energy storage system with supercapacitor for an innovative subway IEEE trans. on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 57, N°. 12, 12/2010, Abstract ALLEGRE AnneLaure, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, BARRADE Philippe, CHATTOT Eric 
In this paper, a new Energy Storage System (ESS) is developed for an innovative subway without supply rail between two stations. The ESS is composed of a supercapacitor bank and a braking resistor. An inversionbased control of the ESS is deduced from the Energetic Macroscopic Representation of the entire system. This control scheme requires a distribution criterion in order to allow the energy to be shared between the supercapacitors and the braking resistor. Different cases are evaluated via a HardwareIntheLoop simulation using a reduced power ESS. The suggested control enables the energy recovery to be maximal and secure the supercapacitor in real time for different track configurations. 
[25] Influence of the mechanical limitations of a traction system on energy storage design Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 81, N°. 2, pages. 302314, 10/2010, URL, Abstract ALLEGRE AnneLaure, DELARUE Philippe, BARRADE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHATTOT Eric 
An innovative subway without supply rail is presented. This article deals with the sizing of the required onboard energy
between two stations in the worst case. The influence of the system limitations on this sizing is studied. It shows the
importance of the system limitations to design the energy storage subsystem. 
[26] Minimum copper loss and Power distribution Control strategies of DoubleInverterFed WoundRotor Induction Machines using Energetic Macroscopic Representation IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 25, N°. 3, pages. 642651, 09/2010 CHEN Keyu, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, VIDAL PaulÉtienne, PIETRZAKDAVID Maria 
[27] From Modeling to Control of a PEM Fuel Cell using Energetic Macroscopic Representation IEEE trans. on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 57, N°. 6, pages. 18821891, 06/2010 BOULON Loïc, HISSEL Daniel, BOUSCAYROL Alain, PERA MarieCécile 
[28] Simulation model of a Military HEV with a Highly Redundant Architecture IEEE transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 59, N°. 6, pages. 2654  2663, 06/2010 BOULON Loïc, HISSEL Daniel, BOUSCAYROL Alain, PAPE Olivier, PERA MarieCécile 
[29] Reducedscale power HardwareIntheLoop simulation of an innovative subway IEEE trans. on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 57, N°. 4, pages. 11751185, 04/2010, Abstract ALLEGRE AnneLaure, BOUSCAYROL Alain, VERHILLE JeanNoël, DELARUE Philippe, CHATTOT Eric 
An innovative subway has been proposed using supercapacitors as the main energy source. Different steps have been defined in order to check the performance of this new supply system on a real subway. In this paper, a reducedscale HardwareIntheLoop simulation is presented for initial experimental validations on a reduced power experimental setup. Special attention is paid to reproducing torque, acceleration and jerk limitations of the real system. 
[30] Causal fuel cell system model suitable for transportation simulation applications Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, Vol. 7, N°. 1, pages. 01101011, 02/2010, Abstract BOULON Loïc, PERA MarieCécile, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, HISSEL Daniel 
This paper presents a model of a whole polymer electrolyte fuel cell system including the stack, an air compressor, a cooling system and a power converter. This model allows its integration in a complete hybrid electric vehicle simulation. The level of detail of the model is chosen to enable control rules design, ancillaries sizing and study of the interaction between the components of the vehicle. This model is formalized with Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR), thus organized in a unified multidomain graphical description. Experimental results are compared to simulations for validation of the model accuracy. 
[31] Electric, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Vehicles: Architectures and Modeling IEEE trans. on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 59, N°. 2, pages. 589598, 02/2010 CHAN C.C., BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHEN Keyu 
[32] Possibilies of reduction of the onboard energy for an innovative subway WEVA Journal, Vol. 3, 12/2009, URL, Abstract ALLEGRE AnneLaure, BARRADE Philippe, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHATTOT Eric 
An innovative subway has been proposed using supercapacitors as energy source. In this paper are presented, different possibilities to reduce onboard stored energy in order to downsize the onboard energy storage subsystem. Special attention is paid to the influence of a feeding rail extension or a downward slope at the beginning of the interstation on the onboard stored energy. A map is built to facilitate the selection of the solution which leads to reduce the onboard energy. 
[33] Energetic Macroscopic Representation and inversionbased control illustrated on a wind energy conversion systems using Hardwareintheloop simulation IEEE trans. on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 56, N°. 12, pages. 48264835, 12/2009 BOUSCAYROL Alain, GUILLAUD Xavier, DELARUE Philippe, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty 
[34] Comparison of control strategies for maximizing energy in a supercapacitor storage subsystem EPE Journal, Vol. 19, N°. 3, 07/2009, Abstract LHOMME Walter, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LE MOIGNE Philippe, BARRADE Philippe 
A storage supercapacitor subsystem is studied for insertion in a series hybrid electric vehicle. This subsystem is composed of a supercapacitor bank and a braking resistor used when the supercapacitor voltage is at its maximum value. Generally, when the maximum voltage is reached by supercapacitor, a voltage drop occurs because of the current cancellation in the series resistance of the supercapacitor. Thus the stored energy is reduced compared to the maximum value that could be reached. To overcome this drawback, new control strategies are proposed by acting on the braking resistor. Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is used to organize the numerous blocks required for modelling and control. Experiment results are provided and highlight the increase of energy storage. 
[35] Global modeling of different Vehicles Using Energetic Macroscopic Representation IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, Vol. 4, N°. 2, pages. 8089, 06/2009 CHEN Keyu, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BERTHON Alain, DELARUE Philippe, HISSEL D 
[36] Global Modeling and Control Strategy Simulation for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle using Electrical Variable Transmission IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, Vol. 4, N°. 2, pages. 7379, 06/2009 CHENG Yuan, CHEN Keyu, CHAN C.C., BOUSCAYROL Alain, CUI Shumei 
[37] Modeling and control of fuel cell systems by energetic macroscopic representation Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, Vol. 6, N°. 2, 05/2009 CHRENKO Daniela, PERA MarieCécile, HISSEL Daniel, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[38] Powering Sustainable Mobility: Roadmaps of Electric, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Vehicles Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 97, N°. 4, pages. 603607, 04/2009 CHAN C.C., WONG Y. S., BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHEN Keyu 
[39] Control of a Symmetrical Dualdrive Gantry System using Energetic Macroscopic Representation Solid State Phenomena (SSP), Vol. 144, pages. 181185, 02/2009, URL, Abstract KESTELYN Xavier, GOMAND Julien, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BARRE PierreJean 
Dualdrive gantry systems are commonly used in many industrial applications. However,as few papers are available in the literature, this kind of system is difficult to broach. Based on an
energetic approach socalled Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR), this paper presents a graphical modelling based on lumpedparameters. The initial drive is decomposed into a set of decoupled fictitious systems using a mathematical transformation. Since the modelling respects the integral causality, inversionbased controls are thus deduced. More generally, this approach proposes a way to analyze and deduce models and controls of multidrive mechatronic systems. 
[40] Switched causal modeling of transmission with clutch in hybrid electric vehicles IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 57, N°. 4, pages. 20812088, 07/2008, Abstract LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi, DELARUE Philippe, JEANNERET Bruno, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
Abstract — Certain difficulties arise when attempting to model a clutch in a powertrain transmission due to its nonlinear behaviour. Two different states have to be taken into account: the first being when the clutch is locked and the second being when the clutch is slipping. In this paper, a clutch model is developed using Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR), which is in turn used in the modelling of complete Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). Two different models are used and a specific condition defining the commutation between both models with respect to the physical energy flow is proposed. A Petri net is employed to activate one of the models depending on the clutch state (locked or slipping). This model allows us to implement without difficulty a simulation of the clutch with a relatively short computation time. 
[41] Energetic macroscopic representation and inversionbased control: application to an electric vehicle with an electrical differential Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles, Vol. 6, N°. 1, pages. 10971102, 06/2008 CHEN Keyu, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter 
[42] Weighted control of traction drives with parallelconnected AC machines IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 53, N°. 6, pages. 17991806, 12/2006, Abstract BOUSCAYROL Alain, PIETRZAKDAVID Maria, DELARUE Philippe, PENAEQUILUZ Rosendo, VIDAL PaulÉtienne, KESTELYN Xavier 
AC machines supplied in parallel by a common voltage source inverter are sometimes used in industrial drives and railway traction applications. This reduction of power and control electronics leads to a reduction of cost, weight and dimensions that is very useful for onboard systems. But this common supply imposes common voltages to all machines and the possibilities of independent behavior are reduced. In this paper a graphical modeling is suggested to model such parallel drives for a railway application. A weighted control is then systematically deduced from this modeling and different possibilities of control are highlighted. Experimental results are provided to compare two of the deduced controls. 
[43] Power strategies for Maximum Control Structure of a wind energy conversion system with a synchronous machine Renewable Energy, Vol. 30, N°. 22732288, 05/2005, Abstract BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, GUILLAUD Xavier 
The control of a wind energy conversion system can be decomposed in two parts: a local control depending on the power structure and a global control (strategy) deduced from global considerations. The local part ensures an efficient energy management of each component of the system. The local control structure can be deduced from the Energetic Macroscopic Representation, which is a graphical description of the system according to action and reaction principle. Using inversion rules, the deduced control structure is composed of a maximum of control operations and measurements. The global control part is independent of the power structure. This strategy part leads to achieve power objectives (active and reactive power targets) and system constraints (machine efficiency and DC bus limitation). Several strategies can be defined for the same system. These control decomposition is applied to a wind generation system composed of a permanent magnet synchronous generator and two threephase converters. Simulation results are provided for a 600 kW wind energy conversion system. 
[44] Control implementation of a fiveleg ACAC converter to supply a threephase induction machine IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 20, N°. 1, pages. 107115, 01/2005, Abstract BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, FRANCOIS Bruno, NIIRANEN Jouko 
A fault tolerant ACAC converter capable of supplying a threephase induction machine from the grid with an unitary power factor has been proposed. With one faulted converter leg, two of the remaining five legs are connected to the grid, two legs are connected to the machine and a common leg is shared by the grid and the machine. The previously developed control strategy required a too great computation time for practical implementation. In this paper, a new control strategy is suggested for this power converter. It enables an easier control implementation. Experimental results are provided. 
[45] Behaviour model control for cascaded processes: application to an electrical drive Journal of Computers and Electrical Engineering, Elsevier Science, Vol. 30, N°. 7, pages. 509526, 10/2004, Abstract VULTURESCU Bogdan, BOUSCAYROL Alain, IONESCU Fiorin, HAUTIER JeanPaul 
Behaviour model control (BMC) is known to increase the robustness of a process control. It has already been applied to electrical drives for singleloop controls. This paper introduces the BMC among others model control strategies and extends its singleloop structure to more complex controls, which need several loops. This extension is applied to a double loop control of a DC machine drive. Simulations and experimental results show that the suggested doubleloop BMC yields better results than a classical control, increasing robustness against parameter variations and external disturbances. 
[46] Control Structures for Multimachine Multiconverter Systems with upstream coupling Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 63, N°. 35, pages. 261270, 11/2003, Abstract BOUSCAYROL Alain, DAVAT Bernard, DE FORNEL Bernard, FRANCOIS Bruno, HAUTIER JeanPaul 
A multimachine multiconverter system formalism has been proposed to describe systems composed of several electrical machines and converters. This description points out coupling elements, which have to distribute energy. Control structures have already been proposed for systems with downstream coupling. This paper is focused on control structures for systems with upstream coupling. Several solutions can be found by moving control blocks 
[47] Modelling, control and simulation of an overall wind energy conversion system Renewable Energy, Vol. 28, N°. 8, pages. 11561324, 07/2003, Abstract DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, LANCIGU G 
The control of a wind energy conversion system can be decomposed in two parts: a local control depending on the power structure and a global control (strategy) deduced from global considerations. The local part ensures an efficient energy management of each component of the system. The local control structure can be deduced from the Energetic Macroscopic Representation, which is a graphical description of the system according to action and reaction principle. Using inversion rules, the deduced control structure is composed of a maximum of control operations and measurements. The global control part is independent of the power structure. This strategy part leads to achieve power objectives (active and reactive power targets) and system constraints (machine efficiency and DC bus limitation). Several strategies can be defined for the same system. These control decomposition is applied to a wind generation system composed of a permanent magnet synchronous generator and two threephase converters. Simulation results are provided for a 600 kW wind energy conversion system. 
[48] Vectorial formalism for analysis and design of polyphase synchronous machines EPJAP (European Physical JournalApplied Physics), Vol. 22, N°. 3, pages. 207222, 06/2003, Abstract SEMAIL Eric, BOUSCAYROL Alain, HAUTIER JeanPaul 
A vectorial formalism for analysis and design of polyphase synchronous machines without reluctance and saturation
effects is described. We prove the equivalence of such a machine with a set of magnetically independent machines, which are
electrically and mechanically coupled. Specific problems of polyphase machines can thus be favorably analyzed with this concept.
Rules of conception and constraints on electric supply can be deduced. Moreover the vectorial approach, which generalizes the
complex phasor method, can also be used to control nleg Voltage Source Inverters. This methodology is applied to 3phase and 6
phase synchronous machines. 
[49] Generic control method of multileg voltagesourceconverters for fast practical implementation IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, Vol. 18, N°. 2, pages. 517526, 03/2003, Abstract DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, SEMAIL Eric 
A generic and simple control method is suggested for any multileg voltagesourceconverter. A specific coding yields an inversion table allowing a fast practical implementation. Phasetophase voltage references have to be defined for such a table. This original control strategy is validated by experimental results for 2leg, 3leg, 4leg and 5leg structures supplying balanced and unbalanced multiphase loads. 
[50] EPE’13 ECCE Europe, a carbon neutral conference! EPE Journal, A paraître BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHEVALLIER Loïc, CIMETIERE Xavier, CLENET Stéphane, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty 
ACLN Revue nationale avec comité de lecture 
[1] Représentation énergétique macroscopique d’une pile à combustible RIGE, 09/2008, Abstract HISSEL Daniel, PERA MarieCécile, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHRENKO Daniela 
Le transport routier est aujourd’hui au cœur d’enjeux sociétaux majeurs. Les réserves limitées d’hydrocarbures et la pollution croissante impliquent la recherche d’une alternative crédible au véhicule à moteur à combustion interne. Dans cette optique, l’utilisation des piles à combustible semble prometteuse. Néanmoins, les performances, intrinsèquement bonnes, d’un tel groupe électrogène sont grevées par une consommation énergétique importante des auxiliaires nécessaires à son propre fonctionnement. Une étape déterminante réside donc dans la mise au point de modèles de simulation de ce groupe électrogène multiphysique par excellence et multiéchelle. Ces modèles permettront alors d’augmenter le rendement énergétique de ce groupe électrogène, au travers de lois de commande locales et globales optimisées. Cet article propose une modélisation basée sur la représentation énergétique macroscopique, ce formalisme visant à définir une représentation synthétique pour les systèmes complexes, respectant la dualité description structurelle/fonctionnelle, dans le cadre de la systémique (interactions) structuraliste (causalité intégrale). Un modèle de simulation en est déduit. 
[2] Structures de commande des Systèmes Multimachines Multiconvertisseurs Revue Internationale de Génie Electrique, Vol. 6, N°. 34, pages. 325341, 10/2003, Abstract BOUSCAYROL Alain, DAVAT Bernard, ESCANE Pierre, DE FORNEL Bernard, FRANCOIS Bruno 
Un formalisme a été mis en place pour l’analyse de systèmes composés de plusieurs machines électriques et/ou plusieurs convertisseurs statiques. Il permet de mettre en évidence les trois couplages possibles dans les chaînes de conversion électromécanique : couplage électrique, magnétique ou mécanique. Des règles basées sur le principe d’inversion permettent de proposer des structures de commande pour de tels systèmes. Des critères de répartition énergétique doivent ainsi être mis en œuvre. Plusieurs exemples d’application très divers montrent l’intérêt de ce formalisme. 
[3] Fivelegacac power converter : structure, modeling and control 35th Annual meeting of a IEEE Industry Applications Society : IAS'2000, 10/2002 FRANCOIS Bruno, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, NIIRANEN Jouko 
ACT Conférence internationale avec acte 
[1] ReducedScale HardwareIntheLoop Simulation of an Electric Vehicle using Modular Cascad Machines This research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Project 51277039 and Project 51611130057, 12/2017 LI Kaibo, CUI Shumei, BOUSCAYROL Alain, ZHANG Zhenyuan, HAN Shoulaing 
[2] Rulebased Energy Management Strategy for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle deduced from Dynamic Programming IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, Belfort (France), 12/2017, Abstract PAM Abdoulaye, BOUSCAYROL Alain, FIANI Philippe, NOTH Frédéric 
To ensure the highest energy efficiency of Hybrid Electric Vehicles, optimizing their Energy Management Strategy (EMS) is required. Unfortunately, most of the methods for optimal EMS like Dynamic Programming (DP) cannot be used in real time. Rulebased EMS are well known to be easily usable in real time. The objective of this paper is to achieve a rulebased EMS of a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle, deduced from DP. In that aims, Energetic Macroscopic Representation of the powertrain is used to develop a backward model. 
[3] An Optimal Control–Based Strategy for Energy Management of Electric Vehicles using Battery/Supercapacitor IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (IEEEVPPC'17), Belfort (France), 12/2017, Abstract NGUYỄN BảoHuy, TROVAO Joao, GERMAN Ronan, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
Energy management strategies are mandatory for hybrid energy storage systems in applications for electric and hybrid vehicles. Optimization–based real–time strategies are of interest since they are straightforward to optimize performance criteria. The available methods are often the combinations of adaptive mechanisms with solutions deduced by optimal control techniques such as Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP). This paper proposes an approach to develop a real–time strategy for battery/supercapacitor systems based on PMP and Energetic Macroscopic Representation without any need of adaptive mechanism for the costate variable. Performances of the proposed strategy are validated by simulation. 
[4] Hybrid Energy Storage System for a CVTbased hybridelectric truck IEEEVPPC'17, 12/2017 CASTAINGS Ali, MAYET Clément, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter, GERMAN Ronan 
[5] IEEE VTS Motor Vehicles Challenge 2018 – Energy Management of a Range Extender Electric Vehicle IEEEVPPC'17, 12/2017 DEPATURE Clément, PAGERIT Sylvain, BOULON Loïc, JEMEI Samir, ROUSSEAU Aymeric, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[6] Campus of University with Mobility based on Innovation and carbon Neutral IEEEVPPC'17, 12/2017 BOUSCAYROL Alain, CASTEX Elodie, DELARUE Philippe, DESREVEAUX Anatole, FERLA Olivier, FROTEY Julia, GERMAN Ronan, KLEIN John, LHOMME Walter, SERGENT JeanFrançois 
[7] Reducedscale HardwareIntheLoop Simulation of an Urban Electric Minibus using Energetic Macroscopic Representation IEEEVPPC'17, 12/2017 LOTRAKUL Pitchapa, PEREIRINHA Paulo, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[8] Characterization Method for Electrothermal Model of Liion Large Cells IEEEVPPC'17, 12/2017 GERMAN Ronan, SHILI Seima, SARI Ali, VENET Pascal, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[9] Electromobility challenging issue : relevant charge stations locations for shopping centers, working places and high traffic areas. A case study of the HautsdeFrance (Northern region of France) IEEEVPPC'17, 12/2017 FROTEY Julia, CASTEX Elodie, COOCHE Marie, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[10] EMRbased SignalHIL Testing of an Electric Vehicle Control IEEEVPPC'17, 12/2017 GENIC Adrien, MAYET Clément, ALMEIDA M, BOUSCAYROL Alain, STOJKOV N. 
[11] Comparison of different models for Electric Vehicle with Heating System IEEEVPPC'17, 12/2017 DESREVEAUX Anatole, BOUSCAYROL Alain, TRIGUI Rochdi, CASTEX Elodie 
[12] Backstepping control of an electric vehicle with local control saturation Proc. of IEEEVPPC 2017, Belfort (France), 12/2017 DEPATURE Clément, LHOMME Walter, SICARD Pierre, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BOULON Loïc 
[13] Coupled Electric and Thermal Batteries Models using Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) for Range Estimation in Electric Vehicles EPE'17, 09/2017 GERMAN Ronan, SOLIS Nicaols, REYES Lara, SILVA Luis, LEBEL FA, TROVAO Joao, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[14] Power HardwareIntheLoop simulation for testing multisource vehicles International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC) Word Congress 2017, Toulouse, 07/2017 CASTAINGS Ali, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi 
[15] Energetic Macroscopic Representation and control of a CVTbased mediumduty hybrid electric truck ElectrIMACS, Toulouse (France), 07/2017, Abstract MAYET Clément, WELLES Joris, BOUSCAYROL Alain, HOFMAN Théo 
A mediumduty parallel Hybrid Electric Truck (HET) with Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) is studied. The Energy Management Strategy (EMS) can be improved using a CVT compare to a classical gearbox because a new degree of freedom is introduced. However, the control and EMS is more complex. The Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is used to organize the model and deduce the control. A rulesbased EMS is defined. Simulation results are provided. 
[16] Energy Management of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Electric Vehicles: A Multiobjective Approach ELECTRIMACS 2017, July 2017, Toulouse, France, 07/2017, Abstract TROVAO Joao, GERMAN Ronan, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
Using supercapacitors (SCs) to configure the hybrid energy storage system (HESS) to extend battery lifetime is promising for electric vehicles (EVs). Energy management strategy (EMS) is mandatory for such systems. Most of previous works develop improved EMS with the only one objective, normally on battery lifetime. However, at least the costs on SCs operation also need to be taken into account. Generally, a methodology to develop multiobjective EMS is demanded. This paper presents a procedure to develop multiobjective EMS of HESS for an EV. SCs system losses are considered as the second cost function. Dynamic programming is used to give the benchmark in order to evaluate the performance of the other strategies. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the developed offline EMS. The dynamic programming generates a Pareto front to be used in order to compare with other online EMS. 
[17] Comparison of two battery/Supercapacitors architectures for electric vehicle ElectrIMACS'17, 07/2017 CASTAINGS Ali, LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[18] Comparison of Continuous and Discrete Variable Transmissions for Parallel HEVs IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, Hangzhou (China), 10/2016, Abstract DESREVEAUX Anatole, MAYET Clément, BOUSCAYROL Alain, HOFMAN Théo 
Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) with Discrete and Continuous Variable Transmissions (DVT and CVT) are studied. A common Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is developed for both kinds of parallel HEVs. Then, a common control structure is deduced from this EMR. Energy Management Strategies (EMSs) are developed. Simulation results are provided and comparisons between Parallel HEVs with CVT and DVT are presented. 
[19] EMRbased Simulation Tool of a Multitrain Subway System IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, Hangzhou (China), 10/2016, Abstract MAYET Clément, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHATTOT Eric 
A simulation tool is developed to study the energetic behavior of a subway system composed of several vehicles and Traction Power Substations (TPS). Such systems are complex to study due to the numerous subsystems in interactions. As an intermediary step, only two subways and one TPS, which are connected with a DC energy rail, are considered. Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is used to organize models and controls. An appropriate quasistatic model of the whole multitrain system is thus obtained. Simulation results analysis are provided. 
[20] Improved Voltage Limitation Method of Supercapacitors in Electric Vehicle Applications IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (IEEEVPPC'16), Hangzhou (China), 10/2016, URL, Abstract NGUYỄN BảoHuy, GERMAN Ronan, TROVAO Joao, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
In electric vehicles, supercapacitors (SC) are commonly used to perform a hybrid energy storage system (HESS). This approach, correctly coordinated and designed, can extend battery lifetime by limiting the battery current stress. SC are often coupled to DC/DC converters. To use the maximum energy stored in SC, high variability of the SC voltage is mandatory. Several time, the associated converter voltage ratio becomes too high and can produce instability of the system. Thus, at each time there is a minimal value for the SC voltage. This article proposes a dynamical limitation method for the SC voltage. The dynamic method is compared with a traditional constant limitation technique. Both are tested under the urban part of New European Driving Cycle with slope. The results point out that the dynamical limitation can ensure a better stability of the system regardless environment disturbance. 
[21] MultiSource EV ReducedScale Demonstrator for Awareness of EMobility VPPC 2016, Hangzhou, China, 10/2016, URL, Abstract GERMAN Ronan, BOUSCAYROL Alain, FERLA Olivier, NIANG Thiella 
Nowadays energy storage is the keypoint of the development of electrical vehicles (EV) for charging time, autonomy and cost reasons. The main energy storage system for electrical vehicles is the battery and can cost up to one third of the vehicle price. Nevertheless the battery has limited power features and can be damaged by EV peak power requirements. Thus higher power density energy storage systems (such as supercapacitors) are used in combination with batteries (multisource EV). A reducedscale EV demonstrator has been developed to present the concept of multisource EV to high school and undergraduate students. The aim of this demonstrator is to highlight the interest of research on electric vehicle to attract students in this research topic. 
[22] Decomposed Energy Management of a MultiSource Fuel Cell Vehicle using Energetic Macroscopic Representation 2016 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), Hangzhou, China, 10/2016 CASTAINGS Ali, LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[23] Backstepping control of a fuel cell/supercapacitor system for electric vehicle IEEEVPOC'16, 10/2016 DEPATURE Clément, LHOMME Walter, BOULON Loïc, BOUSCAYROL Alain, SICARD Pierre 
[24] “Projectbased Master on Intelligent Electric Vehicles IEEEVPPC'16, 10/2016 BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe 
[25] VTS Motor Vehicles Challenge 2016 – Energy Management of a Fuel Cell Range Extender Vehicle IEEEVPPC'16, 10/2016 DEPATURE Clément, JEMAI Samir, BOULON Loïc, BOUSCAYROL Alain, MARX Nigel, MORANDO S, CASTAINGS Ali 
[26] Energetic Macroscopic Representation and InversionBased Control of an Electrical Vehicle Using Modular Cascade Machines This research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Project 51277039 and Project 51611130057, 09/2016 LI Kaibo, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CUI Shumei, HAN Shoulaing 
[27] Design of a New EMRbased Simulation Tool in the Context of Subway Energy Reduction 22nd Intelligent Transportation Systems Congress, Bordeaux (France), 10/2015, Abstract MAYET Clément, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHATTOT Eric 
Reduction of energy consumption in subway lines is necessary to promote cleaner intelligent transportation systems in urban city centers. Many technologies can be considered to achieve this goal, such as energy storage system (ESS) and/or Reversible Traction Power Substation (RTPS). Nevertheless, the complexity of such systems requires an accurate energetic simulation tool to evaluate the effectiveness of these solutions. This paper proposes thus a new simulation tool based on Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR), which allows an accurate estimation of energy consumption. Vehicles and Traction Power Substation (TPS) models are developed. Finally, a simple subway line is simulated under two conditions: with a classical power supply system using TPS, and with an innovative supply system using RTPS. 
[28] ReducedScalePower HardwareIntheLoop Simulation of a Subway Line IEEE Vehicular Power and Propulsion Conference, Montréal (Canada), 10/2015, Abstract MAYET Clément, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, CHATTOT Eric, DEKIK Ilyes 
HardwareIntheLoop (HIL) simulation of a simplified subway line is developed for experimental validation of subway line simulator. Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is used to organize models and controls. A subway supplied by a Traction Power Substation (TPS) through a DC energy rail is studied. The HIL simulation is based on the current control of an inductor, which reproduces the same behavior than the subway. A flexible and quasistatic model of the whole system is used and experimental results are provided. 
[29] Carbon care action of IEEEVPPC’14 Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), 2015 IEEE, pages. 16, 10/2015, Abstract JOKELA Tommi, CATTIAU Valentin, TAVARES Paulo, CHEVALLIER Loïc, BOUSCAYROL Alain, PEREIRINHA Paulo, SILVA Luis, TROVAO Joao 
Organizing international conferences leads to significant amounts of emitted greenhouse gases (GHG’s). This is mainly due to the transport of the attendees to the conference venue. At IEEEVPPC’14, actions were taken to reduce and to compensate the conference GHG emissions as well as to raise public awareness. This paper describes these actions and presents a quantitative estimation of the GHG sources related to the conference. 
[30] A Model Predictive Control with NonUniform Sampling Times for a Hybrid Energy Storage System in Electric Vehicle Application Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), 2015 IEEE, pages. 16, 10/2015 TROVAO Joao, DUBOIS Maxime, GOMOZOV Oleg, KESTELYN Xavier, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[31] Hybrid Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle IEEEVPPC'15, 10/2015, Abstract HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHENG Yuan, DUMAND Clément 
Energy management strategy (EMS) is the key for efficient hybrid vehicles. Two EMS kinds can be generally used: optimalbased algorithms to reach optimum and rulebased algorithms for its easy implementation. The paper objective is to propose a hybrid optimal EMS using optimalbased and rulebased approaches to use benefits of each approach. This hybrid optimal approach enables to reduce the computation time keeping the optimal behavior. This mix is realized thanks to a multilevel structuration of the EMS. This hybrid optimal EMS is a transient step to structure the EMS design. This hybrid optimal EMS, applied on a complex hybrid vehicle enables to divide the computation time by 16 keeping the optimal behavior. 
[32] FullScale Power HardwareIntheLoop Simulation of an Electric Vehicle Using Energetic Macroscopic Representation Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), 2015 IEEE, pages. 16, 10/2015, URL, Abstract DEPATURE Clément, JOKELA Tommi, LHOMME Walter, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BOULON Loïc, SICARD Pierre, BELAHCEN Anouar 
In the automotive sector, HardwareIntheLoop (HIL) simulation is a useful step to develop new controls and energy management methods. We propose to develop a comprehensive and efficient full scale power HIL simulation of a commercial electric vehicle using the graphical formalism of the Energetic Macroscopic Representation. This platform allows taking into account the limitations and component constraints at real power scale. After a validation step, we propose to modify the vehicle energy management to demonstrate the flexibility of the approach. Vehicle modifications may be validated in real time at the fullscale power. 
[33] Adaptive optimisationbased strategy of a battery/supercapacitor system for EV 2015 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), Montreal, Canada, 10/2015 CASTAINGS Ali, LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi, BOUSCAYROL Alain, REDONDOIGLESIAS Eduardo 
[34] Modeling and Simulation of an Automatic Subway Including Interleaved Inverter Dynamics IEEEVPPC'15, 10/2015 SILVA Luis, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DE ANGELO Christian, DELARUE Philippe 
[35] Signal HIL Simulation of a Hybrid locomotive using Energetic Macroscopic Representation IEEEVPPC'15, 10/2015 LE TROUVÉ Tonay, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter, POUGET Julien 
[36] Teaching drive control using Energetic Macroscopic Representation – From maximal to practical control schemes EPE'15, 09/2015 BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, LHOMME Walter, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty 
[37] Modeling and control optimization for Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4 SIA Powertrain conference, 05/2015, Abstract CHENG Yuan, HORREIN Ludovic, MANSOUR Charbel, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DUMAND Clément 
The energy management strategy is one of the key technologies for the design and development of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In order to investigate the maximum potentials of various powertrain architectures and components in terms of fuel and emissions savings, an optimization for the energy management strategy is necessary. This paper will introduce one of the optimizationbased energy management strategies, Dynamic Programming (DP). It is well known as it guarantees a global optimization of the power flow distribution between the combustion engine and the electric machines while taking into account the constraints of subsystems. In this paper, the principle of DP will be presented, and an application example in Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4 is given. The optimized strategy was simulated and analysis has been done based on the results with and without optimization. Even though DP is an offline and noncausal optimization, it serves as a benchmark for comparison with the existing strategy. Thanks to DP, a rulebased strategy extracted from the DP optimization results is implemented and compared. This could be referred in the future strategy design. 
[38] Multi Fuel Cell System for a Range Extender Eletric Vehicle 6th International Conference on ”Fundamentals & Development of Fuel Cells” (FDFC), 02/2015, Abstract DEPATURE Clément, LHOMME Walter, BOULON Loïc, BOUSCAYROL Alain, SICARD Pierre 
In this paper, a multi Fuel Cell (FC) system is added to the Tazzari Zero Electric Vehicle. With a fixed amount of hydrogen, the influence of the number of FCs is studied by simulation according to a strategy that maximizes the use of the batteries. The vehicle range has been extended from 90 to 109.4 km, depending on the number of FCs. However, the distance drive with the H2 power is much more expensive than the equivalent distance with full electric power. A compromise between the full electric, the travel range and the system cost should define the final FC system’s architecture. The study has been done with a simulation tool by using the Energetic Macroscopic Representation. 
[39] Simulation tool of an Electric Vehicle including thermal aspect using Energetic Macroscopic Representation IEEEVPPC’14, 10/2014, Abstract HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHENG Yuan 
Electric vehicle (EV) are one solution for the next decades to face the greenhouse gases emission issue. The most important drawbacks about the EV concern the limited range depending of the battery performances and the charging time.
The vehicle range is estimated with standard drive cycles and ideal conditions. The objective of this paper is to propose a simulation tool to calculate the energy distribution in the EV including the thermal exchange between the heating system and the cabin. Indeed, the heating system (using thermal resistance) is an important energy consumer in the vehicle. All models are organized using Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) 
[40] Dynamic model and causal description of a traction power substation based on 6pulse diode rectifier IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, Coimbra (Portugal), 10/2014, Abstract MAYET Clément, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHATTOT Eric, VERHILLE JeanNoël 
The aim of this paper is to propose an Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) of the dynamic model of a traction power substation based on 6pulse diode rectifier. This model is validated by comparing the wave forms with PSIM© software. Furthermore, it is applied to the energetic simulation of a subway line by combining the substation model with supply rail and vehicle models. This last part allows a good representation and comprehension of the real system. 
[41] Efficiency Map of the Traction System of an Electric Vehicle from an OnRoad Test Drive IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), 10/2014, URL, Abstract DEPATURE Clément, LHOMME Walter, BOUSCAYROL Alain, SICARD Pierre, BOULON Loïc 
In this paper, the traction system modeling of a commercial electric car is studied. Experimental data acquired during an onroad test drive are used to determine an efficiency map of the traction system. Using the deduced model, simulation results are compared to experimental results. The simulation tool using the proposed efficiency map method yields less than 5 % error on energy consumption compared to experimental test drive results. 
[42] Comparison of Backstepping Control and InversionBased Control of a Range Extender Electric Vehicle IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), 10/2014, URL, Abstract DEPATURE Clément, SICARD Pierre, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter, BOULON Loïc 
In this paper the drive control of a commercial Electric Vehicle (EV) equipped with a low power Range Extender (RE) Fuel Cell (FC) system is studied. By using backstepping control, the drive control of the REEV is deduced and compared to the Inversion BasedControl deduced from its Energetic Macroscopic Representation. From the modelling, the backstepping defines the control structure and ensures the stability of a system regarding to LyapunovLaSalle theorems. 
[43] Different control schemes of a battery/supercapacitor system in Electric Vehicle VPPC 2014, 10/2014, Abstract CASTAINGS Ali, LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
This paper deals with energy management for
electric vehicle using SuperCapacitors (SCs) and battery. SCs are
connected to the DC bus through a converter whereas battery is
directly connected to the DC bus. Using the inversionbased rules
of Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR), a systematic
control structure can be deduced. Some differences can be shown
in comparison with classical control schemes. This paper aims to
compare a control scheme deduced from EMR and another
control structure designed thanks to a more classical way. It can
be noticed that some differences appear. As far as the structure is
concerned, the number of sensor can be reduced in the EMR case.
In terms of performances, some control errors appear in the
classical scheme case. 
[44] Experiences on carbon care conferences Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), 2014 IEEE, pages. 16, 10/2014, URL, Abstract ALLEGRE AnneLaure, ASTIER S., BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHEVALLIER Loïc, CIMETIERE Xavier, CLENET Stéphane, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty, MAUSSION Pascal, SERGENT JeanFrançois 
Organizing international conferences leads to emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). Even though, some conferences are devoted to “greener” systems (e.g. IEEE VPPC), the transport of attendees and the local organization of the conference are not “carbon free”. Consequently, some experiences are reported in this paper in order to reduce the ecological footprint of the conference itself and also to mitigate the emitted GHG for international congresses. 
[45] A Novel Approach for Simulating the Control of the Traction System of an Automatic Subway IEEEVPPC'14, 10/2014 SILVA Luis, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, VERHILLE JeanNoël 
[46] Different hybridization rate of a dieselelectric locomotive IEEEVPPC'14, 10/2014 LETROUVE Tony, LHOMME Walter, POUGET Julien, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[47] Energy management in EVs using battery and supercapacitors: Algebraic loop issue EPE’14 ECCE Europe, 09/2014, Abstract CASTAINGS Ali, LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
This paper deals with inversionbased control of EVs with Hybrid Energy Storage System based on battery and
supercapacitors. Using inversion rules of Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR), a systematic control
structure can be deduced. However, it points out the possibility of an algebraic loop issue. Furthermore, it may
result in computation problems. This paper aims to exhibit some solutions to avoid this problem in an efficient way. 
[48] Impact of the mechanical limitations of an automatic subway on the energy consumption and the running time estimations ElectrIMACS, Valencia (Spain), pages. 367372, 05/2014, Abstract MAYET Clément, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, VERHILLE JeanNoël, CHATTOT Eric 
This paper aims to study the influence of different system limitations on the energy consumption and the running time estimation of an automatic subway. These limitations take into account the maximal values of jerk, acceleration, torque and velocity. From a validated vehicle model and a Reference Velocity Generator (RVG), the impacts of these limitations are estimated. The main limitations are highlighted by simulations depending on the study objective. Some mechanical constraints can thus be neglected depending on the study. 
[49] Hierarchical management structure of a battery supercapacitor system for EV suing Energetic Macroscopic Representation electrIMACS'14, 05/2014 TROVAO Joao, BOUSCAYROL Alain, MACHADO Phelipe, LHOMME Walter 
[50] Energetic Macroscopic Representation and InversionBased control of a CVTbased HEV EVS’27, Vol. Barcelona, 11/2013 CHOUHOU Marouane, JIVAN Cornelai, BOUSCAYROL Alain, OFMAN Theo 
[51] Teaching Electric Vehicle drive control using Energetic Macroscopic Representation EVS’27, 11/2013, URL, Abstract DEPATURE Clément, LHOMME Walter, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LETROUVE Tony 
The study of an electric vehicle is an attractive topic for students. At the University of Lille1 (France), an
electric car is used to teach and develop drive control skills. From software simulation and Hardwareinthe
loop simulation, the students in electrical engineering learn drive control steps with a real electric
vehicle. In this paper, the Energetic Macroscopic Representation is used to describe the electric car. This
graphical tool allows the decomposition of the studied vehicle in accordance with physical laws. The
control scheme is then deduced from the description using the inversionbased control rules. 
[52] Benefits of a double parallel 4wheeldrive HEV for different driving cycles VPPC 2013, 10/2013, Abstract LETROUVE Tony, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter, DOLLINGER Nicolas 
The Hybrid4 PSA Peugeot Citroën architecture is one of the most complex HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) in the market. This vehicle’s architecture is called double parallel HEV. The complexity of this technology makes its control complex. The objective of this paper is to highlight the different benefits of this architecture regarding different driving cycles. The Energetic Macroscopic Representation is used to describe and to deduce the systematic control. 
[53] RangeExtender Electric Vehicle Using a Fuel Cell IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), 10/2013, URL, Abstract DEPATURE Clément, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BOULON Loïc 
In this paper the driving range of a commercial Electric Vehicle is extended using a low power fuel cell system. By using two driving cycles (Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and a real cycle), both vehicles are compared in simulation using Energetic Macroscopic Representation. By adding a 1.2 kW fuel cell system and 2700 sl, 19.5 kg hydrogen tanks, the driving range is extended from 105.6 km to 128.2 km for an UDC, and from 68.3 km to 73.2 km for a real cycle. 
[54] Multiphysical Modeling and Description of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine using Energetic Macroscopic Representation for EV/HEV applications EPE’13  ECCE Europe, 09/2013, Abstract HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHENG Yuan, EL FASSI Mehdi 
Because it does not participate in the vehicle traction, the thermal energy is not highlighted in the electric and
hybrid electric vehicle (EV and HEV) study, especially for electrical components like electric machines and
batteries. Nevertheless, the thermal states of these components can have a great impact on the vehicle behaviour,
such as safety, performances and autonomy, etc. This impact is more important if the driver turns on the heating
system. In order to consider the thermal dimension of the energetic study for EV/HEV applications, a multiphysical
modeling and description (for organizing this model with the energetic focus) of each component is required. This
paper is focused on the multiphysical (electrical, mechanical and thermal) modeling and description of the
electrical machine using EMR. 
[55] Different models of an energy storage subsystem for a hybrid locomotive EPE’13  ECCE Europe, Lille (France), 09/2013, Abstract MAYET Clément, BOUSCAYROL Alain, POUGET Julien, LHOMME Walter, LETROUVE Tony 
The aim of this paper is to determine an appropriate model of a hybrid dieselelectric locomotive in
order to estimate its fuel consumption and test new energy managements. The locomotive is composed
of a dieselbased generation subsystem, a battery – supercapacitors storage subsystem and a traction
subsystem. A quasistatic model of the locomotive has been carried out from dynamical model. It
allows the reduction of the computation time by 22 keeping an energy consumption accuracy of
99.4 %. Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is used as common description tool for the
different models. 
[56] Dynamical and static models of the traction system of an automatic subway EPE’13  ECCE Europe, Lille (France), 09/2013, Abstract MAYET Clément, HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, VERHILLE JeanNoël 
The aim of this paper is to compare different models of an automatic subway in order to determine the
most appropriate of them for the evaluation of the energy consumption of different studied cases
(normal mode and faultmodes). Several simplified models are then deduced from a reference
dynamical model and are compared in term of accuracy and computation time. A quasistatic model
with an equivalent single wheel is obtained and allows the reduction of the computation cycle by 708
compared to the dynamical model by keeping accuracy on the energy consumption of more than
99.3 % for a normal operating mode. By contrast, this model is not able to simulate correctly the
system in faultmodes. This case requires a more complex model taking into account all the drives.
Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is used to organize the different models. 
[57] Energetic macroscopic representation and inversion based control of hybrid energy storage systems for EVs EEVC'12 (European Electric Vehicle Conference), Brussels, 11/2012 BOUSCAYROL Alain, TRIGUI Rochdi, ALLEGRE AnneLaure 
[58] Energetic Macroscopic Representation and inversionbased control of the traction system of a hybrid locomotive IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, Seoul (Korea), 10/2012, Abstract MAYET Clément, MEJRI Mohamed, BOUSCAYROL Alain, POUGET Julien, RIFFONNEAU Yann 
The EMR (Energetic Macroscopic Representation) of the traction system of a hybrid locomotive is presented. Different models are studied in order to be use for energy management of the entire system including energy storage subsystems. The simulation model is validated by comparison with experimental results. 
[59] Thermal Energetic Model of an Internal Combustion Engine for Simulation of a Thermal Vehicle IEEE  Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, 10/2012, Abstract HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, EL FASSI Mehdi 
The objective of this paper is to develop an energetic
dynamical description of a model of an Internal Combustion
Engine. This model is based on a simple power balance between
input and output power of engine. The Energetic Macroscopic
Representation (EMR) is used to organize the IC engine model.
This energetic description will be coupled with the whole vehicle
previously developed with EMR. The fuel consumption and the
detailed power flow will be analysis for a complete drive cycle 
[60] Reducedscale HardwareIntheLoop Simulation of a Peugeot 3∞8 Hybrid4 Vehicle IEEEVPPC’12, Seoul (Korea), 10/2012, Abstract LETROUVE Tony, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter, DOLLINGER Nicolas, MERCIERCALVAIRAC Fabien 
During the development phase of a complex system like a Hybrid Electric Vehicle, different steps are done to develop the control and the energy management. Nowadays, only two steps are generally done: simulation and experimentation on the prototype vehicle. For complex system, a HardwareIntheLoop (HIL) simulation phase can be inserted between these two steps. In this paper, a HIL simulation of the Peugeot 3∞8 HYbrid4 vehicle is proposed. This vehicle has a double parallel architecture that makes the emulation complex. In order to structure this approach EMR (Energetic Macroscopic Representation) is used. 
[61] Different control schemes of a fuel cell vehicle using supercapacitors IEEEVPPC’12, Seoul (Korea), 10/2012 GAUCHIA Lucia, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter 
[62] Faultoperation modes of a highly redundant military vehicle IEEEVPPC'12, Seoul (Korea), 10/2012 BOULON Loïc, BOUSCAYROL Alain, HISSEL Daniel, PAPE Olivier, PERA MarieCécile 
[63] Modeling and control of an electric vehicle combining bondgraph and energetic macroscopic representation IEEEVPPC’12, Seoul (Korea), 10/2012 SILVA L., BOUSCAYROL Alain, DE ANGELO Christian 
[64] Comparison of two different traction systems for subway application using energetic macroscopic representation IEEEVPPC’12, Seoul (Korea), 10/2012 WANG W., BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHENG M. 
[65] Optimal management and comparison of SPHEV Vehicles using the Dynamic Programming method IEEEVPPC'12, Seoul (Korea), 10/2012 VINOT Emmanuel, TRIGUI Rochdi, CHENG Yuan, BOUSCAYROL Alain, ESPANET Christophe 
[66] Forward and Backward simulations of a power propulsion system IFACPPPSC’12, Toulouse (France), 09/2012, Abstract HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, VERHILLE JeanNoël, MAYET Clément 
This paper aims to compare a forward and backward simulation of the power propulsion
system of an automatic subway. In the forward approach the control of the system is required. In the
backward approach, no control is required but a derivative relationship has to be computed. Both
simulations are compared in terms of accuracy of dynamical performances, maximal values of different
variables and energy consumption and specifically when limitations occur. 
[67] Projectbased teaching unit using energetic macroscopic representation to design drive controllers IEEEVPPC'10, Lille (France), 09/2012 GIRAUD Frédéric, ALLEGRE AnneLaure, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHEN Keyu, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty 
[68] Position control of a 3DOF platform for haptic shape rendering EPEPEMC, Novi Sad (Serbia), 09/2012 ZENG Tao, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty, GIRAUD Frédéric, MESSAOUDI Medhi, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[69] Simulation of a photovoltaic conversion system using energetic macroscopic representation EPEPEMC, Novi Sad (Serbia), 09/2012 LHOMME Walter, DELARUE Philippe, GIRAUD Frédéric, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[70] Simulation of a wind energy conversion system using energetic macroscopic representation EPEPEMC, Novi Sad (Serbia), 09/2012 BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, GUILLAUD Xavier, LHOMME Walter, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty 
[71] Thermal Energetic Model of an ICE vehicle using Energetic Macroscopic Representation European Electric Vehicle Congress, 10/2011, Abstract HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, EL FASSI Mehdi 
This article deals with the consideration of thermal model for the evaluation of the energy consumption and
losses of an ICE vehicle. The Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is used to organize this
complex model of an ICE vehicle. This thermal representation has been validated by comparisons with
other similar models. 
[72] Inversionbased Control of a PM Electric Variable Transmission IEEEVPPC'11, 09/2011 CHENG Yuan, BOUSCAYROL Alain, TRIGUI Rochdi, ESPANET Christophe 
[73] InversionBased Control of a double parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Validation in a structural software
VPPC 2011, 09/2011, Abstract LETROUVE Tony, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter, DOLLINGER Nicolas, MERCIERCALVAIRAC Fabien 
This paper deals with the validation of the control structure of a double parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). Indeed, using inversionbased rules of Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR), a systematic control structure can be deduced. The objective of this paper is to test this control in the structural software of PSA Peugeot Citroën. 
[74] Teaching drive control using energetic macroscopic representation EPE'11 ECCE Europe Conference, Birmingham, 09/2011 BOUSCAYROL Alain, BARRADE Philippe, BOULON Loïc, CHEN Keyu, CHEN Y., DELARUE Philippe, GIRAUD Frédéric, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty, LETROUVE Tony, LHOMME Walter, SICARD Pierre 
[75] Inversion based control of seriesparallel HEV for municipal trucks IEEEVPPC’11, Chicago (U.S.A), 09/2011 SYED Ali, LHOMME Walter, BOUSCAYROL Alain, VULTURESCU Bogdan, BUTTERBACH S. 
[76] Modeling of power split device with clutch for heavyduty military vehicles IEEEVPPC’11, Chicago (U.S.A), 09/2011 SYED Ali, LHOMME Walter, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[77] Fuel Cell, battery and supercapacitor hybrid system for electric vehicle: modeling and control via Energetic Macroscopic Representation IEEEVPPC'11, Chicago (USA), 07/2011 GAUCHIA Lucia, BOUSCAYROL Alain, TRIGUI Rochdi, BARRADE Philippe 
[78] Different Models of the Traction System of an Automatic Subway ElectrIMACS’11 Conference, 06/2011, Abstract HORREIN Ludovic, DERACHE Vincent, BOUSCAYROL Alain, VERHILLE JeanNoël, DELARUE Philippe 
This article deals with several models for the estimation of electric consumption of an automatic
subway. Backward and forward models are simulated. The forward simulation model is deduced from Energetic
Macroscopic Representation (EMR). Different models are then compared in terms of accuracy and computation. 
[79] Operating Modes and Power Flows Explained — Power Split Devices for HEVs CVT2010, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 11/2010, Abstract SYED Sajjad Ali, LHOMME Walter, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHEN Keyu 
In recent times, an increased focus in the automobile sector has been to try and find reductions for emissions and fuel consumption using Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). Amongst the different HEV architectures, the most favorable is the seriesparallel. This is because of its high performance and efficiency; as it joins the advantages of both series and parallel HEVs. In spite of its advantages, this system is more complex and intricate to model. Lying in the heart of this type of architecture is the Power Split Device (PSD), which has a vital role because of its power distribution. This paper aims to reduce the complexity of this system by providing a basic understanding of the differences between operating modes and power flows of the vehicle. Here, planetary gear is used to better understand the workings of this system. 
[80] Different structures of permanentmagnet electric variable transmissions for Hybrid Electric Vehicles EVS25, Shenzen (China),, 11/2010 CHENG Yuan, ESPANET Christophe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, TRIGUI Rochdi 
[81] Energetic Macroscopic Representation and inversionbased control of hybrid electric vehicles : application to a military hybrid truck EEVC'11 (European Electric Vehicle Conference), Brussels, 10/2010 BOUSCAYROL Alain, BOULON Loïc, HISSEL Daniel, PAPE Olivier, TRIGUI Rochdi 
[82] Electrical Vehicle Engineering :master degree for new developments in automotive industry IEEEVPPC’10, Lille, France, 09/2010, Abstract SEMAIL Eric, MOUMNI Zaid, BOUSCAYROL Alain, FORTIN Emeric, RIVIERE Philippe 
Four French Grandes Écoles (Engineering and Business Schools) of PARISTECH open in October 2010 an education program which main objective is the impact study of the massive insertion of electrical energy in autonomous vehicles. The program with a common core curriculum and two different options is described. 
[83] A common model validation in the case of the Toyota Prius II IEEEVPPC, Lille, France, 09/2010 CHEN Keyu, TRIGUI Rochdi, BOUSCAYROL Alain, VINOT Emmanuel, LHOMME Walter 
[84] Modeling of Power Split Device for HeavyDuty Vehicles VPPC2010, Lille, France, 09/2010, Abstract SYED Sajjad Ali, LHOMME Walter, BOUSCAYROL Alain, PAPE Olivier, LETROUHER Guy 
Nowadays in the automobile sector, seeking reductions in emission and fuel consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) is an increased focus. The seriesparallel HEV has an architecture that is more diverse than other types of HEVs as it joins both the advantages of series and parallel HEVs. One of the reasons that seriesparallel HEVs are more complicated and complex is due to Power Split Devices (PSDs) such as the Ravigneaux geartrain. This complexity becomes more obvious in heavyduty applications because of their high weight and power requirements. Modeling such PSDs becomes a vital point because of their role in power distribution, efficiency and enhanced design. In this paper, the modeling of these PSDs is conducted with the assistance of Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) and implemented into MATLABSimulink®. 
[85] Macroscopic modelling and representation of a PEM fuel cell gas supply taking into account water phenomena IEEEVPPC'10, Lille (France), 09/2010 BOULON Loïc, AGBOSSOU Kodjo, HISSEL Daniel, BOUSCAYROL Alain, SICARD Pierre 
[86] Causalbased generation of velocity reference for automatic subways IEEEVPPC’10, Lille (France), 09/2010 VERHILLE JeanNoël, BEAREE Richard, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[87] Different energy management strategies of Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) using batteries and supercapacitors for vehicular applications IEEEVPPC'10, Lille (France), 09/2010 ALLEGRE AnneLaure, TRIGUI Rochdi, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[88] Experimental setup to test the power transfer of an innovative subway using supercapacitors IEEEVPPC’10; Lille (France), 07/2010 BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter, DEMIAN Cristian, ALLEGRE AnneLaure, CHATTOT Eric 
[89] An Energetic Based Method for the control of input filters stability IEEEVPPC'10; Lille (France), 07/2010 BARRADE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe 
[90] Energetic Macroscopic Representation and PSIM® simulation: application to a DC/DC converter input filter stability IEEEVPPC’10;, Lille, France, 07/2010 DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BARRADE Philippe 
[91] Control of PEMFC Gas Supply and Prevention of Starvation using Energetic Macroscopic Representation IEEEVPPC'10, Lille, France, 07/2010 ETHIR Khalid, BOULON Loïc, BOUSCAYROL Alain, AGBOSSOU Kodjo 
[92] Different models of a traction drive for an electric vehicle simulation
VPPC 2010, 07/2010, Abstract LETROUVE Tony, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter, DOLLINGER Nicolas, MERCIERCALVAIRAC Fabien 
Various simulations of Electric Vehicles (EVs) or Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are achieved for different objectives. In this paper, the influence of the electrical drive model is studied for simulation of an EV. Indeed, the electric machine with its associated converter can be modelled in three different ways: dynamic, static and quasistatic modelling. The studied electric machine is an induction machine. The aims of this paper are to show different effects of each model on an EV simulation and to study when each model should be used. 
[93] Simulation of an Unified Control Scheme for Different Hybrid Electric Vehicles Proceedings of IEEEIECON’09, Porto, Portugal, 11/2009 CHEN Keyu, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, BERTHON Alain 
[94] Influence of control strategies on hybrid Energy Storage Systems for traction applications IEEEVPPC’09, Detroit, USA, 10/2009, Abstract ALLEGRE AnneLaure, BOUSCAYROL Alain, TRIGUI Rochdi 
The energy storage is key issue for traction applications like Electric Vehicles (EVs) or Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). Indeed, it needs a higher power and energy density, a weak bulk and size, a long lifetime and a low cost. A hybrid Energy Storage System (ESS) using batteries and supercapacitors, seems to be a good device to answer to these constraints. The objective of the paper is to study the influence of control strategies for this hybrid ESS. Indeed, according to the used strategy, this association can be more and less interesting compared to an ESS only composed of batteries. Three control strategies are proposed. 
[95] Energy based modeling of a 6 wheel drive hybrid heavy truck IEEEVPPC’09, Dearborn USA, 09/2009 BOULON Loïc, HISSEL Daniel, PERA MarieCécile, PAPE Olivier, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[96] Comparison of two SeriesParallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles focusing on control structures and operation modes IEEEVPPC’09. Dearborn, USA, 09/2009 CHEN Keyu, LHOMME Walter, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BERTHON Alain 
[97] Modelling Comparison of Planetary Gear using EMR and Simdriveline for Hybrid Electric Vehicles IEEEVPPC’09, Dearborn, USA, 09/2009, Abstract SYED Sajjad Ali, LHOMME Walter, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
Nowadays in the automobile sector, seeking reductions in emission and fuel consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) is an increased focus. In different architectures of HEVs the most favourable architecture is a seriesparallel HEV, because of its high operation modes and performance as it joins the advantages of both series and parallel HEVs. In spite of its advantages, this system is more complex and intricate to model. Lying in the heart of this type of architecture is the planetary gear which has a vital role because of its power distribution. This paper aims to reduce the complexity of the system with a modelling comparison of the planetary gear for a seriesparallel HEV by both structural and functional approaches. In order to describe the two modelling approaches, Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is used for the functional approach and Simdriveline by MATLABSimulinkTM for the structural modelling approach. These two different topologies are shown and discussed through simulation results. 
[98] Modelling and control of a vehicle with tireroad
interaction using energybased techniques VPPC’2009, Dearborn, USA, 09/2009, Abstract GROSSI Federica, LHOMME Walter, ZANASI Roberto, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
In this paper a vehicle with the modelling of its tireroad interaction is described using two different energybased graphical techniques: PowerOriented Graphs (POG) and Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR). The main features of both approaches are presented and an integration between them is proposed: they can be used together to model different parts of the same system. Using the two techniques the whole vehicle can be represented with either a mathematical or a macroscopic view. From EMR an inversionbased control is given in order to control the vehicle velocity. 
[99] Influence of the clutch model in a simulation of a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle VPPC 2009, 09/2009, Abstract LETROUVE Tony, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter 
Various simulations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are achieved for different objectives. But, all components are not always taken into account for their complexity and their computation time. In this paper, the influence of the clutch model is studied for simulation of a parallel HEV. Indeed, the clutch is a difficult element to model. Two simulations are provided, with and without the clutch. The effects on the fuel consumption and on the dynamic performance are studied. 
[100] Modelling and control of a vehicle with tireroad
interaction using POG and EMR formalisms Electromotion 2009, Lille, France, 07/2009, Abstract GROSSI Federica, LHOMME Walter, ZANASI Roberto, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
In this paper a vehicle is described using two
different energetic graphical techniques: PowerOriented
Graphs (POG) and Energetic Macroscopic Representation
(EMR). As these techniques have different features and
purposes, they can be used together to model different parts
of the same system. The POG technique is used to model
the interaction between tire and road in order to have a
dynamic energetic model, while the EMR technique is used to
represent the whole system and deduce the control structure
through the inversionbased methodology. Thanks to the use
of both techniques the whole vehicle can be represented and
a structure to control the vehicle velocity is given. 
[101] Teaching drive control using Energetic Macroscopic Representation  expert level EPE’09, Barcelona, Spain, 07/2009 BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, GIRAUD Frédéric, GUILLAUD Xavier, KESTELYN Xavier 
[102] Modelling and control of a double parallel hybrid electric vehicle using Energetic Macroscopic Representation Electromotion 2009, 07/2009, Abstract LETROUVE Tony, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
A double parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is studied using Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR). This graphical description enables an inversionbased control scheme of this complex HEV. A first energy management is provided. 
[103] Possibilities of reduction of the onboard energy for an innovative subway EVS24, stavanger (Norway), 05/2009 ALLEGRE AnneLaure, DELARUE Philippe, BARRADE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[104] Maximal and Practical Control Structure of a PEM Fuel Cell System Based on Energetic Macroscopic Representation FDFC’08, 2008, Nancy, France., 12/2008, Abstract BOULON Loïc, HISSEL Daniel, BOUSCAYROL Alain, PERA MarieCécile, DELARUE Philippe 
This paper presents a methodology to design the control part of a Fuel Cell (FC) stack. Here, the objective is to control the FC voltage. This methodology is based on Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) of the FC and leads to a socalled Maximal Control Structure (MCS). The MCS is a step by step inversion of EMR (inversion model based control structure). The control design process is based on an explicit definition of the problem. In fact, as examples, the tuning inputs, the system objectives or constraints are highlighted to organize the control. Moreover, the MCS shows the places where sensors are necessary and the controller which are requested. Unfortunately, MCS is only a theoretical control structure. Consequently, a realistic structure needs some simplifications that lead to a socalled Practical Control Structure (PCS). The FC model is here presented and experimentally validated. The designed control structure is simulated and results are discussed. 
[105] A Review on Existing Modeling Methodologies for PEM Fuel Cell Systems FDFC’08, 2008, Nancy, France., 12/2008 HISSEL Daniel, TURPIN Christophe, BOULON Loïc, BOUSCAYROL Alain, FRANCOIS Bruno 
[106] Identification of a 7phase clawpole starteralternator
for a microhybrid automotive application
International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM08), 09/2008, Abstract BRUYERE Antoine, HENNERON Thomas, LOCMENT Fabrice, SEMAIL Eric, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
This paper deals with the identification of a new high power starteralternator system, using both: a Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling and an elementary experimental vector control. The drive is composed of a synchronous 7phase clawpole machine supplied with a low voltage / high current Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). This structure needs specific approaches to plan its electrical and mechanical behaviors and to identify the parameters needed for control purpose. At first, a Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling of the machine is presented. It is used for the predetermination of the electromotive forces and of the torque. Experimental results are in good accordance with numerical results. In a second part, resistive and inductive parameters of the drive are determined by an original experimental approach that takes into account each component of the drive: the battery, the VSI and the machine. 
[107] Modeling and Control of a 7phase Clawpole Starteralternator
for a Microhybrid Automotive Application
IEEEVPPC’08, Harbin (China), 09/2008, Abstract BRUYERE Antoine, SEMAIL Eric, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LOCMENT Fabrice, DUBUS JeanMarc 
This paper deals with the modeling and the control of a new high power 12V starteralternator system. The drive is composed of a 7phase synchronous clawpole machine with separate excitation, supplied with a 7leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) designed for low voltage and high current. The system is modeled in a generalized Concordia frame and a graphical description is used to highlight energetic properties of such a complex system. A control scheme is then deduced from this graphical description. Two controls are achieved in generator mode: one is using the VSI in a squarewave mode, the other in a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) mode. Experimental results are provided. 
[108] Inversionbased control of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle using a Split Electric Variable Transmission IEEEVPPC’08, Harbin, China, 09/2008 CHEN Keyu, CHENG Yuan, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHAN C.C., BERTHON Alain 
[109] Global Modeling and Control Strategy Simulation for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle using Electrical Variable Transmission IEEEVPPC’08, Harbin, China, 09/2008 CHENG Yuan, CHEN Keyu, CHAN C.C., BOUSCAYROL Alain, CUI Shumei 
[110] Global modeling of different Vehicles Using Energetic Macroscopic Representation
IEEEVPPC’08, Harbin, China, 09/2008 CHEN Keyu, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BERTHON Alain, DELARUE Philippe, HISSEL Daniel 
[111] MultiPhysics Modelling and Representation of Power and Energy Sources for Hybrid Electric Vehicles IEEE VPPC 2008, September 35, 2008, Harbin, China, 09/2008, Abstract BOULON Loïc, HISSEL Daniel, BOUSCAYROL Alain, PERA MarieCécile, DELARUE Philippe 
This paper presents power sources models for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV). These models are designed in order to be integrated in a complete HEV simulation. Moreover, the final objective of this simulation is to study two control levels: the local control of each subsystems and the energy management of the entire system. Consequently, a multiphysics control oriented formalism is used: Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR). 
[112] Global energetic modelling of different architecture Hybrid Electric Vehicles 9th International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Electric Machines, Converters and Systems, ELECTRIMACS 2008, Québec, 06/2008 CHEN Keyu, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BERTHON Alain, DELARUE Philippe, HISSEL Daniel 
[113] Energetic Macroscopic Representation and Inversionbased Control of
DoubleInverterFed WoundRotor Induction Machine
9th International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Electric Machines, Converters and Systems, ELECTRIMACS 2008, Québec, 06/2008 CHEN Keyu, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, VIDAL PaulÉtienne, PIETRZAKDAVID Maria 
[114] Graphical description for Hardware in the Loop simulation IEEEISIE 08, Cambridge (UK), pages. 21462151, 06/2008 BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty 
[115] Identification of sensitive RL parameters of a multiphase drive by a vector control IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (PESC08), 06/2008, Abstract BRUYERE Antoine, SEMAIL Eric, LOCMENT Fabrice, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DUBUS JeanMarc 
This paper focuses on an experimental method to determine the electric parameters of a sevenphase lowvoltage multiphase drive. The drive is a belt driven starteralternator for powerful cars with Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEV) functions. The resistive and inductive parameters are necessary to obtain the six characteristic time constants of the control modeling. Classical direct measurements lead to imprecise results because of very low values for the windings electric resistance and inductance. Effects of the imprecision on the measurements are all the more important that time constants are obtained by a ratio of cyclic inductances by resistance, with cyclic inductances being a linear combination of seven measured inductances. The methodology for identification detailed in this paper is based on a stator current vector control, in a multireference frame. This methodology allows us to get directly these time constants. Numerous measurements allow the robustness of the method to be evaluated. 
[116] Influence of the limitations of the traction system on energy storage design Electrimacs, Quebec, Canada, 06/2008, Abstract ALLEGRE AnneLaure, DELARUE Philippe, BARRADE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHATTOT Eric 
An innovative subway without supply rail is presented. This article deals with the sizing of the required onboard energy between two stations in the worst case. The influence of the system limitations on this sizing is studied. It shows the importance of the system limitations to design the energy storage subsystem. 
[117] Different graphical descriptions of clutch modelling for traction systems Proc. of ElectrIMACS 2008, Québec (Canada), 06/2008, Abstract LHOMME Walter, ZANASI Roberto, GEITNER GertHelge, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
Abstract – In this paper the friction clutch of a vehicle is modelled using three special graphical tools which are developed to model power flow through physical systems: energetic macroscopic representation, power oriented graph and bond graph. Due to its nonlinear behaviour, the modelling of the clutch is a challenging point. Indeed, it connects or disconnects mechanical parts, which can have similar or diverging rotation speeds. The aim of the paper is to highlight the features of each tool for the clutch modelling, the simulation and the analysis of such systems including nonlinearities. 
[118] Different energetic techniques for modelling traction drives Proc. of ElectrIMACS 2008, Québec (Canada), 06/2008, Abstract ZANASI Roberto, GEITNER GertHelge, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter 
Abstract  In this paper the traction system of an automatic subway is described using four different energetic graphical techniques: BondGraph (BG), Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR), PowerOriented Graphs (POG) and Vectorial BondGraph (VBG). The aim of this paper is to highlight the analogies and the differences between these modelling techniques in the analysis and simulation of the considered system. 
[119] Different types of hardwareintheloop simulation for electric drives IEEEISIE’08, Cambridge (UK), pages. 21462151, 06/2008 BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[120] Graphical description for inversionbased control of hybrid electric vehicles EET 2008, Geneva (Switzerland), 03/2008 BOUSCAYROL Alain, HISSEL Daniel, TRIGUI Rochdi 
[121] Graphical description for inversion based control of hybrid electric vehicles EET'08, Geneva (Switzerland), 03/2008 BOUSCAYROL Alain, HISSEL Daniel, TRIGUI Rochdi 
[122] Validation of antislip control for a subway traction system using HardwareIntheLoop simulation IEEEVPPC’07, Arlington (USA), 10/2007, Abstract VERHILLE JeanNoël, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BARRE PierreJean, HAUTIER JeanPaul 
In this paper a newantislip control is proposed for the traction system of an automatic subway. Energetic Macroscopic Representation was used to proposed a graphical and physical description of the whole traction system. An inversion based control is deduced from this graphical description. This control scheme highlights different possibilities of control. A new antislip strategy is then deduced from the inversionbased control. Before an implementation on an actual vehicle, the new control is validated on a reduced power experimental setup. A hardwareintheloop simulation is thus used to asses performance of this control in the same conditions as in the actual vehicle. Experimental results are provided. 
[123] Influence of control design on energetic performance of an electric vehicle IEEEVPPC’07, Arlington  Texas, USA, 09/2007 CHEN Keyu, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, TRIGUI Rochdi 
[124] Energetic Macroscopic Representation of a fuel cellsupercapacitor system IEEE VPPC 07, Arlington, USA, 09/2007, Abstract BOULON Loïc, PERA MarieCécile, HISSEL Daniel, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe 
This paper presents a model of a fuel cellsupercapacitor
system which represents the electric power supply
device of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). The fuel cell and the
supercapacitors are coupled with a DC bus and a common cooling
system. The first part of this paper deals with the modeling of the
elements of the system (fuel cell system (FCS), supercapacitors,
power electronics, and temperature regulation system). The
second part deals with the design of a control structure which
regulates the DC bus voltage, the fuel cell power, and the power
source temperature. Simulation and experimental results are
provided and analyzed. 
[125] Modelling and Control of a Symmetrical Dualdrive Gantry System using Energetic Macroscopic Representation MSM 2007, 3rd International Conference on Mechatronic Systems and Materials, Kaunas, Lithuania, 09/2007, Abstract KESTELYN Xavier, GOMAND Julien, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BARRE PierreJean 
Dualdrive gantry systems are commonly used in many industrial applications. However, as few papers are available in the literature, this kind of system is difficult to broach. Based on an energetic approach socalled Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR), this paper presents a graphical modelling based on lumpedparameters. The initial drive is decomposed into a set of decoupled fictitious systems using a mathematical transformation. Since the modelling respects the integral causality, inversionbased controls are thus deduced. More generally, this approach proposes a way to analyze and deduce models and controls of multidrive mechatronic systems. 
[126] Validation of clutch modeling for hybrid electric vehicle using hardwareintheloop simulation IEEEVPPC’07, Arlington (U.S.A.), CDROM, 09/2007, Abstract LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, JEANNERET Bruno 
Abstract – A HardwareIntheLoop (HIL) simulation of a convention vehicle system is developed for experimental validations of clutch modelling. Two different states have to be taken into account: clutch locked and slipping. Two different models are then used and a specific condition defines the commutation between both models with respect to the physical energy flow. Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is used to organize the numerous blocks required. A Petri net is employed to activate a model according to clutch state (lock and slip). The HIL is based on a controlled IM drive, which imposes the same behaviour of the mechanical powertrain to the clutch. A flexible and dynamical model of the whole system is used and simulation results are provided with regard of the experimental results. 
[127] Teaching drive control using Energetic Macroscopic Representation  initiation level EPE’07, 09/2007, Abstract BOUSCAYROL Alain, BRUYERE Antoine, DELARUE Philippe, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty, GIRAUD Frédéric 
The Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) has been developed in 2000 to develop control of systems with several drives. Since 2002 this graphical tool has been introduced to teach drive control in France, then Canada and Switzerland. The University of Lille proposes two drive control units for students in electrical engineering: initiation level and expert level unit. This first paper deals with the content of the initiation level unit and describes the simulation project of an electrical vehicle using EMR. 
[128] Hardwareintheloop simulation of the traction system of an automatic subway EPE’07, Aalborg (Denmark), 09/2007, Abstract VERHILLE JeanNoël, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BARRE PierreJean, HAUTIER JeanPaul 
A HardwareIntheLoop (HIL) simulation of the traction system of automatic subway VAL 206 is developed for experimental validations of new control strategies. Energetic Macroscopic Representation is used to organize the numerous blocks required. The HIL simulation is based on two vectorcontrolled induction machines, which impose the same behavior of the mechanical power train to the traction drives. A flexible and dynamical model of the whole system is used and experimental results are provided. 
[129] Causal fuel cell system model suitable for transportation simulation applications 5th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technologiy, Brooklyn, USA, 2007, 06/2007, Abstract BOULON Loïc, PERA MarieCécile, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, HISSEL Daniel 
This paper presents a model of a whole polymer electrolyte fuel cell system including the stack, an air compressor, a cooling system and a power electronics converter. This model allows the integration in a model of a complete hybrid electric vehicle. The level of detail of the model is chosen to enable control rules design, ancillaries sizing and study of the interaction between the elements of the vehicle. This model is formalized with Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR). Thus the model is organized in a unified multidomain graphical description. Experimental results are compared to simulations for validation of the model accuracy. 
[130] Energetic Macroscopic Representation of a hybrid storage system based on supercapacitors and compressed air IEEEISIE’07, Vigo (Spain), 06/2007, Abstract BOSSMANN T., BOUSCAYROL Alain, BARRADE Philippe, LEMOUFOUET S, RUFER Alfred 
A hybrid energy storage system has been proposed using supercapacitor and compressed air in order to store energy from photovoltaic panels. A simulation model is developed using Energetic Macroscopic Representation. Such a description can be used to deduce new control laws of the hybrid storage system using specific inversion rules. The simulation model is validated by comparison with experimental results. 
[131] Comparison of 3, 5 and 7leg Voltage Source Inverters for low voltage applications IEMDC 2007, 05/2007, Abstract LOCMENT Fabrice, BRUYERE Antoine, SEMAIL Eric, KESTELYN Xavier, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
In the context of high power lowvoltage
applications as startergenerator for automotive, multiphase
drives present the attractive characteristic of reducing the
current per phase and per leg. A 5 or 7phase machine is also
more suitable for using concentrated windings, attractive for
their short endwindings and subsequently for a higher
expected torquetovolume density. In this perspective, the 5
and 7leg Voltage Source Inverters (VSI) are compared with the
3leg VSI. In the first part, for the same set of resistances and
inductances coupled in different wyecoupling configurations,
we examined the DCbus currents and the power recovered by
the load for a squarewave VSI control: the 7leg VSI is the
more efficient because it makes best use of the harmonics. In the
second part, the torque ripples of 3, 5 and 7phase drives are
compared: the 7phase drive torque ripples are the lowest ones
because of the less sensitivity to the harmonics of the currents.
In the last part, a Pulse Width Modulation control is studied,
with almost the same voltage harmonics amount as this one
obtained with the squarewave mode control. Experimental
results are given for the 7leg VSI either with a passive load or
with a 7phase permanent magnet synchronous motor. 
[132] MEGEVH project: graphical modelling for energy management of hybrid electric vehicles EET’07, Brussels (Belgium), 05/2007, Abstract BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELPRAT S., HISSEL Daniel, TRIGUI Rochdi 
The French national MEGEVH project deals with energy management of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The objective is to provide general methodologies to model HEV and optimize their energy flows. The project is subdivided in modeling and optimization subprojects. Graphical modeling has been chosen to highlight energetic properties of the studied vehicles. Two actual vehicles have been taken as reference for the developments. Theoretical methods will be firstly developed independently of the kind of HEV. Then these methods will be tested on the reference vehicles. The MEGHEV objectives and organization are firstly detailed. In a second section, Energetic Macroscopic Representation of a parallel HEV is described as an example of use of graphical modeling for energy management 
[133] Control Strategies for Maximum Storage of Supercapacitor System ESSCAP’06, Lausanne (Switzerland), CDROM, 11/2006, URL, Abstract LHOMME Walter, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LE MOIGNE Philippe 
Abstract – The studied storage system is composed of a supercapacitor
bank and a brake resistor which acts when supercapacitor
is full. Moreover the supercapacitor has a series resistor
which influences the energetic efficiency. In this paper, three control
strategies are presented for a traction application. Two
strategies maximize the charge of supercapacitor to increases
efficiency. Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is used
to organize the numerous blocks required for modeling and control.
Experiment results are provided. 
[134] Control of a Sevenphase Axial Flux Machine Designed for Fault Operation IECON’06, 11/2006, Abstract LOCMENT Fabrice, SEMAIL Eric, KESTELYN Xavier, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
This paper deals with control in fault operation of a sevenphase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine supplied by a sevenleg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). Using a MultiMachine description, a sevenphase machine which presents a special ability to be controlled with only five phases supplied has been designed. The machine is presented and experimental results are provided when two phases are opened. In a first case of no change of classical control, high torque ripples are observed. In a second case, a specific control deduced from the MultiMachine modelling is suggested for reducing torque ripples. 
[135] Hardwareintheloop simulation of different wind turbines using Energetic Macroscopic Representation IEEEIECON’06, Paris (France), pages. 53385343, 11/2006, URL, Abstract BOUSCAYROL Alain, GUILLAUD Xavier, TEODORESCU Remus, DELARUE Philippe, LHOMME Walter 
Abstract – A HardwareIntheLoop (HIL) simulation of a
wind energy conversion system has been developed using
Energetic Macroscopic Representation. Wind, turbine and
mechanical power train are emulated by controlled DC drive to
impose the dynamical behavior of the actual process on the
generator shaft. In this paper, this HIL simulation is extended
to two different wind turbines. The first one leads to extract a
rated power of 900 kW using fixed blades. The second turbine
leads to extract a rated power of 2 MW using adjustable blades.
Experimental results are provided on reduced power
experimental setup for both wind turbines. 
[136] Hardwareintheloop simulation of electric vehicle traction systems using Energetic Macroscopic Representation IEEEIECON’06, Paris (France), pages. 53195324, 11/2006, URL, Abstract BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter, DELARUE Philippe, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty, AKSAS Salah 
Abstract – A HardwareIntheLoop (HIL) simulation of an
electric vehicle traction system is developed for experimental
validations of electrical drives. Energetic Macroscopic Representation
is used to organize the numerous blocks required. A
classical 2drivenwheels traction is studied with an induction
machine. The HIL is based on a controlled DC drive, which imposes
the same behavior of the mechanical power train to the
induction machine. A flexible and dynamical model of the whole
system is used and experimental results are provided. 
[137] Maximum control structure of a fivedrive paper system using Energetic Macroscopic Representation IEEEIECON’06, 11/2006 DJANIWANKAM Yvette, SICARD Pierre, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[138] Modelling and Control of an Ultrasonic Motor: Application to a Mechanical Claw Drive IEEE Industrial Electronics, IECON 2006  32nd Annual Conference on, pages. 970975, 11/2006, URL, Abstract GIRAUD Frédéric, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
Properties of the travelling Wave Ultrasonic Motor (TWUM)among which we find a hightorque to mass ratio, locking without supply, ultrasonic operation  are very attractive for embedded application, such as human prothesis for example. But unfortunately, its control for high precision or high dynamic motion is not easy to achieve because of many non linearities induced by its particular energy conversion process. This is why this paper deals with the modelling of a TWUM, based on a physical causal approach. According to the inversion principle, control strategies are deduced as well as a novel torque estimation structure. A mechanical claw control using this torque estimator is then achieved and experimental results check the accuracy of the proposed control scheme. 
[139] Switched Causal Modeling of Transmission with Clutch in Hybrid Electric Vehicles IEEEVPPC’06, Windsor (United Kingdom), 09/2006, URL, Abstract LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi, DELARUE Philippe, JEANNERET Bruno, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
Abstract – The modeling of a clutch in a powertrain transmission is a sensitive issue because of its nonlinear behavior. Two different states have to be taken into account: clutch locked and slipping. Two different models are then used and a specific condition defines the commutation between both models with respect to the physical energy flow. An application to parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) is then presented. Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is used to organize the numerous blocks required. A Petri net is employed to activate a model according to clutch state (lock and slip). 
[140] " Model validation of the whole traction system of an automatic subway IEEEVPPC’05, Windsor (UK), 09/2006, Abstract VERHILLE JeanNoël, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BARRE PierreJean, HAUTIER JeanPaul 
A simulation model of the whole traction system of subway VAL 206 is developed using the Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR). This traction system is composed of 6 choppers, 4 DC machines, 4 bogies and 8 wheels. Nonlinear devices of the mechanical power train are taken into account. The whole traction system is simulated using MatlabSimulinkTM. A validation of this model is provided in comparison with experimental results obtained from the actual process. This whole model can now be used to develop more advanced controls of VAL 206. 
[141] Extension of Energetic Macroscopic Representation to timevarying systems, applications to winder tension control IEEEISIE’06, 07/2006 DJANIWANKAM Yvette, SICARD Pierre, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[142] Design and Control of a Supercapacitor Storage System for Traction Applications IEEEIAS’05, Hong Kong (China), Vol. 3, pages. 20132020, 10/2005, URL, Abstract LHOMME Walter, DELARUE Philippe, BARRADE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, RUFER Alfred 
Abstract – The storage system in this paper is made of supercapacitors. The main goal is to ensure an efficient energy management in a series hybrid vehicle, even if braking resistors are still needed. Design considerations are discussed. In particular the influence of the inductor resistance on the system stability is described. A Maximum Control Structure is then deduced from the Energetic Macroscopic Representation of the storage system. Comparisons between experimentation and simulation are presented in order to highlight the influence of the inductor resistor. Experiments are then carried out on a normal operating cycle. 
[143] MultiMachine Modelling of Two Series Connected 5phase Synchronous Machines: Effect of Harmonics on Control EPE 2005 (European Power Electronics), 10/2005, Abstract SEMAIL Eric, LEVI Emil, BOUSCAYROL Alain, KESTELYN Xavier 
Dresden , Germany, 1114 september 2005, CDROM. 
[144] Control structures for Multimachine Multiconverter Systems with several couplings EPE’05, 09/2005, Abstract BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, DE FORNEL Bernard, HAUTIER JeanPaul, MEIBODYTABAR Farid 
A multimachine multiconverter system formalism has been proposed in order to describe systems composed of several electrical machines and converters. The keys of such systems are coupling devices, which have to distribute energy. Control structures have also been suggested according to an inversion principle. The inversions of coupling devices have been made using repartition and weighting criteria. In this paper, systems with several coupling are studied. Several control structures can be found. One of them leads to shift some control blocks and to merge the repartition and weighting blocks. A railway traction system is given as example. 
[145] Different energetic descriptions for electromechanical systems EPE’2005 (Dresden), 09/2005, Abstract BOUSCAYROL Alain, DAUPHINTANGUY Geneviève, SCHOENFELD Rolf, PENNAMEN Amélie, GEITNER GertHelge 
In this paper the traction system of an automatic subway is described using several graphical tools: transfer functions, bondgraph, causal ordering graph, power flow diagram and energetic macroscopic representation. The aim of the paper is to highlight the interest of each tool for the analysis and the control of such a system. 
[146] Control of a piezoelectric actuator for adjustable brake in haptic devices EPE Dresde, 09/2005 PIGACHE François, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty, GIRAUD Frédéric, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[147] Desensitization to voltage sags of a rewinder by using an active dancer roll for tension control IEEEIEMDC’05, San Antonio (USA), pages. 466473, 05/2005, Abstract THIFFAULT Christian, SICARD Pierre, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
Continuous processes in the paper, plastics, textile and other industries, require several drives working in synchronism. Regulation of the mechanical tension in the material is a prime quality criterion. We propose strategies and a control structure that incorporate an active dancer roll in a rewinder system to improve performance of the tensioning loop to disturbances such as voltage supply fluctuations. The linear actuator is used to close a tension loop, the adjoining nip stage maintains the linear actuator close to its mid range of operation and the winder roll is velocity controlled. The effects of voltage variations on the flux observer in the variable speed drives and on loss of performance of the induction motor drives are highlighted. The results show the potential of the proposition as a retrofit option to reduce sensibility to voltage sags in winding systems with little modification to the actual controllers. 
[148] Maximum Control Structure of a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle using Supercapacitors EVS’21, Monaco, CDROM, 04/2005, Abstract LHOMME Walter, DELARUE Philippe, BARRADE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
Abstract – The main problem with Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) is the management of batteries. We suggest to replace the batteries by an energy storage system made of supercapacitors on a series HEV with two traction drive. A Maximum Control Structure (MCS) of such an HEV is presented to organize the control of the different subsystems. MCS is based on specific inversion rules of Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR). This methodology leads to a global model of the system and its deduced control. Moreover, this enable to identify precisely the maximum control for the chopper associated with the supercapacitors. The simulation of an Extra Urban Driving Cycle (EUDC) is provided. 
[149] Right Harmonic Spectrum for the backelectromotive force of a nphase synchronous motor IAS 2004 IEEE Industrial Application Society Annual Meeting, 10/2004, Abstract SEMAIL Eric, KESTELYN Xavier, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
IAS 2004, IEEE Industrial Application Society Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington October 37, 2004, CDROM 
[150] Torque tracking strategy for antislip control in railway traction systems with common supplies IEEEIAS’04, Seatle (USA), 10/2004, Abstract VERHILLE JeanNoël, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BARRE PierreJean, HAUTIER JeanPaul, SEMAIL Eric 
The traction system of the subway VAL 206 is ensured by DC machines connected in series. A common chopper supplies the armature windings and a doublechopper supplies the field windings. Another power structure is suggested in order to increase performances during losses of adhesion. A specific control strategy is defined in order to obtain different torque on both machines despite their common armature current. An antislip control can thus be developed in applying the desired torque to each bogie at just the right time. This torque tracking strategy is validated on a 1.5 kW experimental setup. 
[151] The use of Energetic Macroscopic Representation for control of traction systems: application to subway VAL 206 IEEEVPPC’04, Paris, 10/2004, Abstract VERHILLE JeanNoël, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BARRE PierreJean, HAUTIER JeanPaul 
The Energetic Macroscopic Representation is used to define the control of the traction system of subway VAL 206. A theoretical maximum control structure is deduced from this modelling using inversion rules. A practical control structure is then obtained by simplifications. 
[152] Sensitivity of a 5phase Brushless DC machine to the 7th harmonic of the backelectromotive force PESC 2004, IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 06/2004, Abstract SEMAIL Eric, KESTELYN Xavier, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
PESC 2004, IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Aachen, Germany in June 20  25, 2004,CDROM. 
[153] Simulation of series hybrid electric vehicles based on Energetic Macroscopic Representation IEEEISIE’04, Ajaccio (France), Vol. 2, pages. 1525  1530, 05/2004, URL, Abstract LHOMME Walter, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BARRADE Philippe 
Abstract – The simulation of a series HEV (hybrid electric vehicle) is suggested by using the Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR). Simplified models are used in a first step. They lead to the simulation of an overall HEV with its control. The system is decomposed in two parts: the charge and traction subsystems. Simulations with MatlabSimulinkTM are provided for the simplified system. These first simulations can now be improved by using more complex models of some devices. Indeed, the EMR organizes systems as interconnected components, that leads to modularity and flexibility. 
[154] Control of a triple drive paper system based on the Energetic Macroscopic Representation IEEEISIE’04, Ajjaccio, pages. 889893, 05/2004 LECLERC A., SICARD Pierre, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty 
[155] Control implementation of a fiveleg voltagesourceinverter supplying two threephase induction machines IEEEIEMDC’03, Vol. 3, pages. 19091915, 06/2003 DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, FRANCOIS Bruno 
[156] Simulation of an induction machine wind generation system based on an energetic macroscopic representation ICEM2002, 08/2002 TOUNZI Abdelmounaïm, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, BROCART Charles, TRITSH JeanBernard 
[157] Control structures for Multimachine Multiconverter Systems with dowstream coupling 9th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications : EPE'2001, 08/2001 BOUSCAYROL Alain, DAVAT Bernard, DE FORNEL Bernard, FRANCOIS Bruno, HAUTIER JeanPaul, MEIBODYTABAR Farid, MONMASSON Eric, PIETRZAKDAVID Maria, RAZIK H 
[158] Control Method for Multileg VoltageSource Inverters 9th European Conference on Power Eletronics and Applications : EPE'2001, 08/2001 DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, SEMAIL Eric, FRANCOIS Bruno 
[159] Multimachine multiconverter systems for drives : analysis of couplings by a global modeling 35th Annual meeting of the IEEE Industry Applications Society : IAS'2000, 10/2000 BOUSCAYROL Alain, DAVAT Bernard, DE FORNEL Bernard, FRANCOIS Bruno, HAUTIER JeanPaul, MEIBODYTABAR Farid, PIETRZAKDAVID Maria 
[160] Design and Modelling of a FivePhase VoltageSource Inverter for Two Induction Motors 8th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications : EPE'99, 09/1999 FRANCOIS Bruno, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[161] Control of Two Induction Motors Fed by a FivePhase VoltageSource Inverter ELECTRIMACS, Vol. 3, pages. 313318, 09/1999 FRANCOIS Bruno, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[162] Hierarchical management structure of a batery supercapacitor system for EV suing Energetic Macroscopic Representation ElectrIMACS’14, 05/1990 TROVAO Joao, BOUSCAYROL Alain, MACHADO Phelipe, LHOMME Walter 
[163] Teaching drive control using Energetic Macroscopic Representation – Summer schools EPE’11, ECCE Europe, Birmingham (UK), 01/1990 BOUSCAYROL Alain, BARRADE Philippe, BOULON Loïc, CHEN Keyu, CHENG Yuan 
[164] Causalbased generation of velocity reference for automatic subways IEEEVPPC’10, Lille, France, 01/1990 VERHILLE JeanNoël, BEAREE Richard, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
ACN Conférence nationale avec acte 
[1] Gestion d’énergie par λcontrol d’un véhicule multisources SGE 2016, Grenoble, France, 06/2016 CASTAINGS Ali, LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[2] Représentation et Simulation de Générateurs Thermoélectrique au travers de la Représentation Energétique Macroscopique Symposium de Genie Electrique (SGE’14), 07/2014, Abstract HORREIN Ludovic, BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHENG Yuan, DUMAND Clément 
La réduction de la consommation énergétique dans tous les domaines (automobile, industrie, habitation…) est une nécessité écologique et économique. Les pertes énergétiques, issues de différents phénomènes (résistance, frottement…) se manifestent dans la quasitotalité des cas par un dégagement de chaleur. La valorisation de cette chaleur, si elle est en quantité suffisante, peut être une solution pour réduire la consommation d’énergie globale du système. Le générateur thermoélectrique est un convertisseur utilisant l’effet Seebeck pour convertir l’énergie thermique en énergie électrique. L’objectif de cet article est de modéliser et simuler ces modules. Une validation utilisant les données constructeurs sera également présentée. Les modèles seront organisés en fonction du formalisme R.E.M. (Représentation Energétique Macroscopique) afin de déduire, ultérieurement, une structure de commande de ces modules et de les coupler aux systèmes déjà organisés avec cet outil de représentation. 
[3] Commande d’un actionneur d’embrayage pour un banc d’essai moteur Ef’2009, 09/2009 LHOMME Walter, TRIGUI Rochdi, BOUSCAYROL Alain, JEANNERET Bruno 
HDR Habilitation à diriger des recherches 
[1] Formalismes de représentation et de commande des systèmes électromécaniques multimachines multiconvertisseurs Université de Lille 1, 12/2003, Abstract BOUSCAYROL Alain 
De nombreux systèmes utilisent plusieurs entraînements électromécaniques, c’est à dire une répartition de l’énergie sur plusieurs chaînes de conversion. Les divers actionneurs sont alors de dimensions réduites et les contraintes sur les divers éléments sont plus faibles que pour un actionneur unique. La disponibilité et la fiabilité de l’ensemble sont ainsi augmentées. De plus, lors d’une mise en défaut d’une composante, un fonctionnement en marche dégradée est souvent possible. Mais ces systèmes demandent une commande plus complexe des divers entraînements. Par ailleurs, les diverses chaînes de conversions se perturbent les unes les autres, ce qui peut occasionner des dysfonctionnements, voire des détériorations.
Ces systèmes, utilisés depuis de nombreuses années dans l’industrie, ont d’abord été considérés comme des ensembles d’entraînements indépendants. Leur commande a alors été composée d’entités séparées. Mais les diverses contraintes inhérentes à cette distribution d’énergie ont dû être prises en compte, ce qui a été réalisé progressivement, au cas par cas.
Un groupe national de réflexion a été organisé en 1998 dans le cadre du GdR SDSE, afin d’étudier ces systèmes, ce qui a mené à la dénomination de Systèmes Multimachines Multiconvertisseurs (SMM). Les éléments clefs de la répartition d’énergie ont été définis comme éléments de couplage, reliant plusieurs chaînes de conversion. Cette démarche commune, si elle s’intéressait à des systèmes déjà connus, a débouché sur une nouvelle vision de ces systèmes et de leur gestion. Les études qui ont suivi, allaient le prouver, avec le développement de structures particulières, d’analyses spécifiques, et de lois de commandes originales.
A l’heure actuelle, la démarche classique d’étude des SMM est liée à une approche réductionniste : l’étude du système se déduit directement de celle de ses composantes. Mais les SMM ne peuvent pas se résumer à une association simple de machines et de convertisseurs. Ce concept est à l’origine de l’approche systémique entreprise dans nos travaux : les associations des composantes ont un impact sur l’ensemble.
Le L2EP a utilisé cette approche systémique pour développer une démarche de structuration de la commande des tels systèmes. Ces travaux ont abouti à la Représentation Energétique Macroscopique (REM) dont la notion centrale est alors l’énergie. Cette vision souligne les manipulations d’énergie de tels systèmes. Les commandes déduites correspondent alors à une gestion optimisée de l’énergie au plus près des éléments qui la transforment.
Afin de situer le travail proposé, le premier chapitre fait un bref récapitulatif des modélisations et commandes des systèmes électromécaniques. Le deuxième chapitre est consacré à la REM, outil de description synthétique des systèmes électromécaniques. Une Structure Maximale de Commande (SMC) se déduit naturellement de la REM à l’aide de règles d’inversion. Les divers concepts de REM et de SMC sont illustrés au chapitre III à l’aide d’un exemple issu d’applications pratiques : de la modélisation de ses composantes à la commande en temps réel (plateforme expérimentale SMM du L2EP). Le dernier chapitre ouvre une discussion sur les améliorations du formalisme et sur son extension à d’autres applications.

INV Conférence invité 
[1] HardwareIntheLoop simulation for testing Hybrid and Electric Vehicles IEEEVPPC'17, 12/2017 BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[2] Energy managements of hybrid electric vehicles IEEE VPPC'16, 10/2016 BOUSCAYROL Alain, TRIGUI Rochdi, CASTAINGS Ali 
[3] Generalities on hybrid and electric vehicles TAP'16, 05/2016 BOUSCAYROL Alain, TRIGUI Rochdi 
[4] Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles using Energetic Macroscopic Representation IEEEVPPC’13, Keynote presentation, Beijing (China), 10/2013 BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[5] Modelling methods for energy management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles IEEEIECON’09, Porto (Portugal), 11/2009 BOUSCAYROL Alain, TRIGUI Rochdi, MI C. 
[6] Modelling of Hybrid Electric Vehicles for energy management IEEEVPPC’09, Dearborn (USA), 09/2009 BOUSCAYROL Alain, TRIGUI Rochdi 
[7] HardwareIntheLoop simulation EVS’24, Stavanger (Norway), 05/2009 BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[8] Philosophy of Engineering and Modelling of Electric Machines Drives ICEMS’08, pages. Wuhan (China), 10/2008 CHAN C.C., BOUSCAYROL Alain, CHEN Keyu 
[9] Inversionbased control of electromechanical systems using causal graphical descriptions IEEEIECON’06, Paris, 11/2006, Abstract BARRE PierreJean, BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, DUMETZ Eric, GIRAUD Frédéric 
Causal Ordering Graph and Energetic Macroscopic Representation are graphical descriptions to model electromechanical systems using integral causality. Inversion rules have been defined in order to deduce control structure stepbystep from these graphical descriptions. These two modeling tools can be used together to develop a twolayer control of system with complex parts. A doubledrive paper system is taken as an example. The deduced control yields good performances of tension regulation and velocity tracking. 
[10] Validation of MPPT strategy for a wind energy conversion system using a hardwareintheloop simulation IEEEOptim’06, 05/2006 BOUSCAYROL Alain, GUILLAUD Xavier, TEODORESCU Remus, DELARUE Philippe 
[11] Hardwareintheloop simulation of a wind energy conversion system using Energetic Macroscopic Representation IEEEIECON’05, 11/2005 BOUSCAYROL Alain, GUILLAUD Xavier, DELARUE Philippe 
[12] Torque tracking strategy of traction drives with series connected DC machines IEEEVPP’04 (Paris), pages. 889893, 10/2004, Abstract BOUSCAYROL Alain, DELARUE Philippe, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty, HAUTIER JeanPaul 
Some traction systems are composed of machines connected in series or in parallel. The studied system is composed of two DC machines with armature windings connected in series. Three choppers are used: one for the armature windings and one for each field winding. In industrial cases, such drives are controlled with a master slave strategy: only one machine is really controlled. The behaviour of the slave machine is imposed by the master machine. This paper suggests a new control strategy for such drives. Each machine is really controlled in spite of the common armature current. This strategy enables different rotation speeds for curves. Experimental results are provided. 
OP Ouvrage pédagogique 
[1] De la modélisation à la commande d’un
système électrique. La revue 3EI, N°. 68, pages. 4045, 04/2012 GIRAUD Frédéric, BOUSCAYROL Alain, LHOMME Walter 
OS Ouvrage scientifique 
[1] La REM, formalisme multiphysique de commande de systèmes énergétiques Techniques de l’Ingénieur, N°. D3066, pages. 28, 11/2014, URL, Abstract LHOMME Walter, DELARUE Philippe, BOUSCAYROL Alain, BARRADE Philippe 
La représentation énergétique macroscopique (REM) est un formalisme graphique pour la représentation synthétique de systèmes énergétiques multidisciplinaires. La REM conduit à une description fonctionnelle d’un système énergétique. Elle respecte la causalité intégrale du système étudié, ce qui permet d’en déduire de façon systématique une structure de commande. L’objectif de cet article est de présenter les fondements de la REM et de les appliquer sur un exemple : un ascenseur à traction électrique. 
[2] Introduction à la systémique et à la démarche systémique de conception Conception systémique pour la conversion d’énergie électrique tome 1: gestion , analyse et synthèse, Editions Hermès Science, pages. chap. 1, 11/2012 ASTIER S., BOUSCAYROL Alain, ROBOAM X. 
[3] Formalismes graphiques pour la commande des systèmes énergétiques multiphysiques : des GIC à la REM Conception systémique pour la conversion d’énergie électrique tome 1: gestion , analyse et synthèse, Editions Hermès Science, pages. chap. 3, 11/2012 BOUSCAYROL Alain, HAUTIER JeanPaul, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty 
[4] Introduction to systemic design Systemic design methodologies for electrical engineering tome 1 : Analysis, synthesis and management, pages. Chapter 1, 10/2012 ASTIER S., BOUSCAYROL Alain, ROBOAM X. 
[5] Graphic formalisms for the control of multiphysical energetic systems Systemic design methodologies for electrical engineering tome 1 : Analysis, synthesis and management, pages. Chapter 3, 10/2012 BOUSCAYROL Alain, HAUTIER JeanPaul, LEMAIRESEMAIL Betty 
[6] HardwareIntheLoop simulation Industrial Electronics Handbook, second edition, Chapter 33, Editions Taylor & Francis,, 03/2011 BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[7] Linear estimators and observers for the induction machine Electrical Actuators  Identification and Observation, chapter 4, part 2, ISTE Ltd / John Wiley & Sons inc., London, pages. 177250, 03/2010 PIETRZAKDAVID Maria, DE FORNEL Bernard, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[8] Decomposition of a determinist flux observer for the induction machine: Cartesian and reduced order structures Electrical Actuators  Identification and Observation, chapter 5, part 2, ISTE Ltd / John Wiley & Sons inc., London, pages. 251284, 03/2010 BOUSCAYROL Alain, PIETRZAKDAVID Maria, DE FORNEL Bernard 
[9] Estimateurs et observateurs linéaires d’un machine asynchrone (chap 4) Identification et observations des actionneurs électriques, éditions Lavoisier, Vol. 1, pages. 201274, 02/2007 PIETRZAKDAVID Maria, DE FORNEL Bernard, BOUSCAYROL Alain 
[10] Décomposition d’un observateur déterministe de flux pour machine asynchrone : structures cartésiennes et d’ordre réduit (chap 1) Identification et observation des actionneurs électriques, éditions Lavoisier, Vol. 2, pages. 2154, 02/2007 BOUSCAYROL Alain, DE FORNEL Bernard, PIETRZAKDAVID Maria 
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